Vegetation diversity and structure of urban parks in Cilegon City, Indonesia, and local residents’ perception of its function




Abstract. Muhlisin, Iskandar J, Gunawan B, Cahyandito MF. 2021. Vegetation diversity and structure of urban parks in Cilegon City, Indonesia, and local residents’ perception of its function. Biodiversitas 22: 2589-2603. The existence of urban parks is very essential for cities because they provide ecosystem services and benefits to humans. Diversity and structure of vegetation in urban parks play significant role in delivering several functions of ecosystem services. This paper aims to explore and analyze the vegetation diversity and structure, as well as ecosystem services of eight urban parks in Cilegon City, Banten Province, Indonesia. Vegetation analysis and residents’ perception are also conducted in this research. The analysis of vegetation is focused on horizontal structure of vegetation, including plant diversity, plant habitus, the original distribution of the plants, and vertical structure of vegetation (canopy stratification and vegetation profile). The residents’ perceptions are collected using interviews of selected respondents. The identification of vegetation recorded 114 plant species from 46 families are found in the concerned urban parks, however, the diversity and species richness in these parks tended to be low. The vegetation communities are uncertain and dominated primarily by non-native and invasive species. The canopy stratification is relatively homogeneous with the dominant plants having less than one meter in height, such as Ruellia simplex and Syzygium paniculatum. The vegetation planted in the urban parks are mostly ornamental plants that provide much more aesthetic function rather than ecological purpose, daily human needs, or other ecosystem services. This fact shows that urban parks in the study area have only few ecosystem services, hence they need some improvements in order to have more environmental services and to be able to enjoy more by the community.


Aerts, R., Honnay, O., & Van Nieuwenhuyse, A. (2018). Biodiversity and human health: Mechanisms and evidence of the positive health effects of diversity in nature and green spaces. British Medical Bulletin, 127(1), 5–22.
Agrawal, A., & Gopal, K. (2013). Application of Diversity Index in Measurement of Species Diversity. Biomonitoring OfWater and Waste Water, 41–48.
Akbarini, D., Iskandar, J., & Partasasmita, R. (2017). Collaborative planning for development of the Pelawan Biodiversity Park in Bangka, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18(4), 1602–1610.
Akmar, N., Aziz, A., & Nillson, K. (2018). Recreational Use of Urban Green Space in Malaysian Cities. International Journal of Business and Society, 19(2010), 1–16.
Al-Mana, F. A., & Ahmad, Y. A. (2013). The Performance of Ten Imported Tree and Shrub Species Grown Under the Environmental Conditions of Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Life Science Journal, 10(4), 877–885.
Alam, M. A., Juraimi, A. S., Rafii, M. Y., Hamid, A. A., Aslani, F., & Alam, M. Z. (2015). Effects of salinity and salinity-induced augmented bioactive compounds in purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) for possible economical use. Food Chemistry, 169, 439–447.
Amos, K. C., & Maloy, M. (2015). The Role of Urban Parks in Environmental Education: How Mantled Howler Monkeys (Allouatta paliatta) can Increase Social Outreach. The Parque Natural Metropolitano.
Ardyanto, R. D., Santoso, S., & Samiyarsih, S. (2014). Kemampuan Tanaman Glodogan Polyalthia longifolia Soon. Sebagai peneduh jalan dalam mengakumulasi Pb udara berdasarkan respon anatomis daun di Purwokerto. Scripta Biologica, 1(1), 17.
Baek, S. G., Park, J., Na, C. S., Lee, B., & Cheng, H. (2018). The Morphological characteristics of Pterocarpus indicus induced by Elevated Ozone under Well- watered and Drought conditions The Morphological characteristics of Pterocarpus indicus induced by. Forest Science and Technology, 14(3), 105–111.
Carey, J. J., & Delaney, M. F. (2010). T-scores and Z-scores. Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 8(3), 113–121.
Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L. G., & Stone, A. M. (1992). Public Space (p. xii + 372). Cambridge University Press.
Chen, S., Wang, W., Xu, W., Wang, Y., Wan, H., Chen, D., Tang, Z., Tang, X., Zhou, G., Xie, Z., Zhou, D., Shangguan, Z., Huang, J., He, J. S., Wang, Y., Sheng, J., Tang, L., Li, X., Dong, M., … Bai, Y. (2018). Plant diversity enhances productivity and soil carbon storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(16), 4027–4032.
Croasmun, J. T., & Ostrom, L. (2011). Using Likert-type scales in the social sciences. Journal of Adult Education, 40(1), 19–22.
Darmayanti, A. S., & Hapsari, L. (2015). The hidrological aspects on some selected local plants; Flamboyan (Delonix regia), Sawo (Manilkara achras), Dau (Dracontomelon dao) and Bintaro (Cerbera manghas) and its potential role for land and water conservation. Proceeding of the International Conference on Mathematics and Sciences (ICOMSc) Part 1 Statistics Biology, October 2011, 1–10.
Eisenhauer, N., Hines, J., Isbell, F., van der Plas, F., Hobbie, S. E., Kazanski, C. E., Lehmann, A., Liu, M., Lochner, A., Rillig, M. C., Vogel, A., Worm, K., & Reich, P. B. (2018). Plant diversity maintains multiple soil functions in future environments. ELife, 7(e41228), 1–20.
Ezcurra, C., & Daniel, T. F. (2007). Ruellia simplex, an older and overlooked name for Ruellia tweediana and Ruellia coerulea (Acanthaceae). Darwiniana, 45(2), 201–203.
Farahani, L. M., & Maller, C. (2018). Perceptions and preferences of Urban Greenspaces: A literature review and framework for policy and practice. Landscape Online, 61(February), 1–22.
Fernando, E. S. (2011). Adinidia merrillii – a New Wild Population in the Philippines. Palms, 55(2), 57–61.
Gamito, S. (2010). Caution is needed when applying Margalef diversity index. Ecological Indicators, 10, 550–551.
Garden, P. B., Km, J. S., & Java, E. (2017). Species richness , conservation status , and potential uses of plants in Segara Anakan Area of Sempu Island , East Java , Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 18(4), 1568–1588.
Gibson, D. J. (2010). Grasses and Grassland Ecology. In African Journal of Range & Forage Science (Vol. 27, Issue 1). Oxford University Press Inc.
Gómez, F., Jabaloyes, J., Montero, L., De Vicente, V., & Valcuende, M. (2011). Green Areas, the Most Significant Indicator of the Sustainability of Cities: Research on Their Utility for Urban Planning. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(3), 311–328.
Isa, M. N. A. M., Majid, N. M. A., Hiroyuki, S., Ahmed, O. H., Kundat, F. R., & Heng, R. K. J. (2017). Epicuticular wax concentration on Syzygium myrtifolium leaves. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11(05), 59–64.
Isbell, F., Calcagno, V., Hector, A., Connolly, J., Harpole, W. S., Reich, P. B., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Tilman, D., Van Ruijven, J., Weigelt, A., Wilsey, B. J., Zavaleta, E. S., & Loreau, M. (2011). High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services. Nature, 477(7363), 199–202.
Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining Sample Size. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS.
IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee. (2019). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Vol. Version 14 (Issue August). Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee.
Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., & Pal, D. K. (2015). Likert Scale: Explored and Explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 7(4), 396–403.
Karyati, & Adhi, M. A. (2018). Jenis-Jenis Tumbuhan Bawah di Hutan Pendidikan Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Mulawarman (D. E. Bulan (ed.)). Mulawarman University Press.
Klein, J. M. (2018). Environmental Education in Urban Green Space: Understanding Educator Practice. Lesley University.
Kothencz, G., Kolcsár, R., Cabrera-Barona, P., & Szilassi, P. (2017). Urban green space perception and its contribution to well-being. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 1–14.
Lacy, P. De, & Shackleton, C. (2017). Aesthetic and Spiritual Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Sacred Sites. Sustainability, 9(1628), 1–14.
Lange, M., Eisenhauer, N., Sierra, C. A., Bessler, H., Engels, C., Griffiths, R. I., Mellado-Vázquez, P. G., Malik, A. A., Roy, J., Scheu, S., Steinbeiss, S., Thomson, B. C., Trumbore, S. E., & Gleixner, G. (2015). Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage. Nature Communications, 6(6707), 1–8.
Leeuwen, E. Van, Nijkamp, P., & Vaz, T. D. N. (2010). The multifunctional use of urban greenspace. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainibility, 8(1 & 2), 20–25.
Leimer, S., Kreutziger, Y., Rosenkranz, S., Beßler, H., Engels, C., Hildebrandt, A., Oelmann, Y., Weisser, W. W., Wirth, C., & Wilcke, W. (2014). Plant diversity effects on the water balance of an experimental grassland. Ecohydrology, 7(5), 1378–1391.
Leksono, S. M., Rustaman, N., & Redjeki, S. (2013). Kemampuan profesionalitas guru Biologi dalam memahami dan merancang model pembelajaran konservasi biodiversitas di SMA. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 32(3), 408–419.
Leksono, S. M., Rustaman, N., & Redjeki, S. (2015). Pengaruh penerapan program perkuliahan biologi konservasi berbasis kearifan lokal terhadap kemampuan literasi biodiversitas mahasiswa calon guru biologi. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 34, 89–96.
Leksono, S. M., Syachruroji, A., & Marianingsih, P. (2014). Analisis materi untuk mengembangkan literasi konservasi pada mata kuliah biologi konservasi. Seminar Nasional Biologi Dan Pembelajarannya, 386–392.
Lepczyk, C. A., Aronson, M. F. J., Evans, K. L., Goddard, M. A., & Lerman, S. B. (2017). Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation. Bioscience, 67(9), 799–807.
Manes, F., Incerti, G., Salvatori, E., & Vitale, M. (2012). Urban Ecosystem Services: Tree Diversity and Stability of Tropospheric Ozone Removal. Ecological Applications, 22(1), 349–360.
McLeod, S. (2019). Z-Score: Definition, Calculation and Interpretation. Simply Psychology.
Mihailovic, N., Andreji?, G., & Dželetovi?, Z. (2015). Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to Individual and Combined Application of Ni, Pb and Zn. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 94(1), 103–107.
Modi, A., Mishra, V., Bhatt, A., Jain, A., Mansoori, M. H., Gurnany, E., & Kumar, V. (2016). Delonix regia?: historic perspectives and modern phytochemical and pharmacological researches. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 14(1), 31–39.
Nazarudin, M. R. A., Tsan, F. Y., & Fauzi, R. M. (2014). Paclobutrazol Effects on Growth Performance and Public Preference on Potted Syzygium myrtifolium (Roxb.) Walp. Journal Of Agrobiotechnology, 5(0), 17–29.
Ogedegbe, A., Ikhajiagbe, B., & Anoliefo, G. O. (2013). Growth Response of Alternanthera brasiliana ( L .) Kuntze in a Waste Engine Oil-Polluted Soil Corresponding Author?: Ikhajiagbe , B. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(2), 322–327.
Ogunrin, A. B. (2011). Perception of Nigerian Teachers About In-Service Capacity Development: An Empirical Field Sample Report On Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 3(3), 743–757.
Okunlola, A. I., Adepoju, A. O., & Agele, S. O. (2016). Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and carbon sequestration of selected trees and shrubs for urban development in Akure Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(6), 395–405.
Partomihardjo, T., Arifiani, D., Pratama, B. A., & Mahyuni, R. (2014). Jrnid-Jenis Pohon Penting di Hutan Nusakambangan (Lani Rachm). LIPI Press.
Raina, A. K., & Bala, C. (2011). Effect of vehicular pollution on Duranta repens L. in Jammu City. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 3(2), 211–218.
Schipperijn, J. J. (2010). Use of urban green space. Forest & Landscape Research No. 45-2010. Forest & Landscape Denmark.
Shan, X. (2014). Socio-demographic variation in motives for visiting urban green spaces in a large Chinese city. Habitat International, 41, 114–120.
Smith, A. M., Adams, R., & Wilson, S. B. (2014). Mexican-petunia ( Ruellia simplex ) Invasions: Management Challenges and Research Opportunities. Spring 2014, 20–22.
Smith, W. S., da Silva, F. L., de Amorim, S. R., & Stefani, M. S. 2018. Urban biodiversity: how the city can do its management? Biodiversity International Journal, 2(2), 246–251.
Spellerberg, I. A. N. F., & Fedor, P. J. (2003). A tribute to Claude Shannon ( 1916 – 2001 ) and a plea for more rigorous use of species richness , species diversity and the ‘ Shannon – Wiener ’ Index. Global Ecology & Biogeography (2003), 12, 177–179.
Thomas, A. (2011). Panduan Lapangan Panduan Lapangan Identifikasi Jenis Pohon Hutan, Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership (KFCP). Indonesia-Australia Forest Carbon Partnership.
Tomaškin, J., Tomaškinová, J., & Kizeková, M. (2015). Ornamental grasses as part of public green, their ecosystem services and use in vegetative arrangements in urban environment. Thaiszia Journal of Botany, 25(1), 1–13.
Turkis, S., & Elmas, E. (2018). Tree species diversity and importance value of different forest communities in Yenice forests. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27(6), 4440–4447.
UNESCO. (1977). Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education. In Final Report.
Vijayaraghavan, K., Arockiaraj, J., & Kamala-Kannan, S. (2017). Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(6), 537–544.
Vodouhê, F. G., Coulibaly, O., Adégbidi, A., & Sinsin, B. (2010). Community perception of biodiversity conservation within protected areas in Benin. Forest Policy and Economics, 12(7), 505–512.
Wang, R., Zhao, J., Meitner, M. J., Hu, Y., & Xu, X. (2019). Characteristics of urban green spaces in relation to aesthetic preference and stress recovery. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 41(101), 6–13.
Widyastuti, S. M., Harjono, & Riastiwi, I. (2013). Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia Longifolia dan Pterocarpus Indicus Terhadap Ganoderma sp. Jurnal Hama Dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika, 13(1), 19–23.
Wiryani, E., Murningsih, & Jumari. (2018). The abundance and importance value of tree in “sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” surrounding and its implication to the spring. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1025(1–8).
Wolsink, M. (2016). Environmental education excursions and proximity to urban green space – densification in a ‘compact city.’ Environmental Education Research, 22(7), 1049–1071.
Wood, D. S., & Wood, D. W. (1987). How to Plan Conservation Education Program. Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior).
Yao, L., Chen, L., Wei, W., & Sun, R. (2015). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Potential reduction in urban runoff by green spaces in Beijing?: A scenario analysis. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(2), 300–308.
Yudha, G. P., Noli, Z. A., & Idris, M. (2013). Pertumbuhan Daun Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Willd) dan Akumulasi Logam Timbal (Pb) The leaves growth of angsana (Pterocarpusindicus Willd) and lead (Pb) accumulation. Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas (J. Bio. UA.), 2(2), 83–89.
Zhou, X. (2012). Social benefits of urban green space, A conceptual framework of valuation and accessibility measurements. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journa, 23(2), 173–189.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>