Maximum entropy modeling for the conservation of Hopea odorata in riparian forests, central Thailand




Abstract. Asanok L, Kamyo T, Marod D. 2020. Maximum entropy modeling for the conservation of Hopea odorata in riparian forests, central Thailand. Biodiversitas 21: 4663-4670. Hopea odorata plays a dominant role in both ecologically and economically in Thailand. We analyzed potentially suitable areas for H. odorata in the riparian zone of the Chao Phraya River using the software MaxEnt. Modeling included 164 occurrence records along with 19 climate-related variables, slope, aspect, and elevation. Precipitation was the key climatic variable influencing the distribution of H. odorata. Riparian areas along the Chao Phraya that were predicted to be highly suitable for this species were located in the provinces of Nakhon Sawan, Ang Thong, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Pathum Thani, Nonthaburi, and Bangkok. The ROC AUC score was 0.891, indicating that MaxEnt is an excellent tool for predicting suitable regions for the restoration or cultivation of commercially and ecologically valuable species such as H. odorata. Models such as what we have presented here can facilitate habitat conservation and sustainable resource use for rare and important plants.


Anderson RP, Lew D, Peterson AT. 2003. Evaluating predictive models of species distributions: criteria for selecting optimal models. Ecological Modelling 162: 211–232.
Appanah S, Weinland G. 1993. Planting quality timber trees in peninsular Malaysia (Malaysian Forest Record 38). Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Asanok L, Kamyo T, Norsaengsri M, Salinla-um P, Rodrungruang K, Karnasuta N, Navakam S, Pattanakiat S, Marod D, Duengkae P, Kutintara U. 2017. Vegetation community and factors that affect the woody species composition of riparian forests growing in an urbanizing landscape along the Chao Phraya River, central Thailand. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 28: 138-149.
Atsushi S, Visaratana T,Vacharangkura T, Thai-ngam R, Tanaka N, Ishizuka M, Nakamura S. 2009. Effect of species and spacing of fast-growing nurse trees on growth of an indigenous tree, Hopea odorata Roxb., in northeast Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 257(2): 644-652.
Brito J, Acosta A, lvares F, Cuzin F. 2009. Biogeography and conservation of taxa from remote regions: an application of ecological-niche based models and GIS to North-African Canids. Biological Conservation 142 (12): 3020–3029.
Bunyavejchewin S, LaFrankie JV, Baker PJ, Kanzaki M, Ashton PS, Yamakura T. 2003. Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant canopy dipterocarp species in a seasonal dry evergreen forest in western Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 175: 87–101.
Dormann F, McPherson CM, Araujo JB, Bivand M, Bolliger R, Carl J, Davies GG, Hirzel R, Jetz A, Daniel KW, Kuhn W, Ohlemuller I, Peres-Neto RR, Reineking P, Schroder B, Schurr F, Wilson R. 2007. Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distributional data: a review. Ecography 30 (5): 609–628.
Fielding AH, Bell JF. 2007. A review of methods for assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environment Conservation 24: 38–49.
Franklin J. 2009. Mapping Species Distributions: Spatial Inference and Prediction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Guisan A, Zimmermann N. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling 2000; 135 (2–3): 147–186.
Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. 2005. A very high resolution interpolated climate surface for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25: 1965–2198.
IPCC. 2007. Contribution of Working Groups I, II, III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007, Synthesis Report, Geneva.
Jaryan V, Datta A, Uniyal SK, Kumar A, Gupta RC, Singh RD. 2013. Modelling potential distribution of Sapium sebiferum- an invasive tree species in Western Himalaya. Current Science 105 (9): 1282–1288.
Joker D. 2000. Hopea odorata Roxb. Seed Leaflet No. 49. Danida Forest Seed Centre.
Krishnapillay K. 2002. A Manual for Forest Plantation Establishment in Malaysia (Malaysian Forest Record 45). Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Khanum R, Mumtaz AS, Kumar S. 2013. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling. Acta Oecologica 49: 23–31.
Montagnini F, Jordan CF. 2005. Tropical Forest Ecology. Springer, Berlin.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya.
Phillips S, Dudk M. 2008. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31 (2): 161–175.
Phillips S, Anderson RR, Schapire R. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190 (3–4): 231–259.
Prentice IC. 1992. Climate change and long-term vegetation dynamics. In: Glenn DC, Peet RK, Veblen TT, editor. Plant Succession: Theory and Prediction. Chapman and Hall, London.
PROSEA. 1994. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). PROSEA Foundation, Bogor.
Smitinand T, Santisuk T. 1981. Dipterocarpaceae of Thailand with special reference to silvicultural ecology. The Malaysian Forester 44: 377–385.
Scheldeman X, Zonneveld M. 2010. Training Manual on Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution. Biodiversity International, Rome.
Shimwell D, Box E, Lieth H. 1982. Macroclimate and plant forms: an introduction to predictive modeling in phytogeography. The Journal of Applied Ecology 19 (3): 993-998.
Sunil K, Thomas JS. 2009. Maxent modeling for predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered tree Canacomyrica monticola in New Caledonia. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment 1(4): 94-98.
Swanti S, Kusum A, Dhruval B, Rajkanti K. 2018. Modeling habitat suitability of Perilla frutescens with MaxEnt in Uttarakhand-A conservation approach. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 10: 99-105.
Swets JA. 1988. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 240: 1285–1293.
Taylor D, Hamilton A. 1994. Impact of climate change on tropical forests in Africa: Implications for protected area planning management. In: Pernetta JG, Leemans R, Endler HD, editor. Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species: Implications for protected areas. IUCN Gland.
Warren DL, Glor RE, Turelli M. 2008. Environmental niche equivalency versus conservatism: quantitative approaches to niche evolution. Evolution 62 (11): 2868–2883.
Woodward FI. 1987. Climate and Plant Distribution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Most read articles by the same author(s)