Habitat characteristics and biodiversity of nekton in the Alas-Singkil River Basin, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia




Abstract. Muhtadi A, Leidonald R, Fauzia AD. 2023. Habitat characteristics and biodiversity of nekton in the Alas-Singkil River Basin, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 3673-3689. The Alas-Singkil watershed ecosystem is an essential habitat for the diversity of flora and fauna in the North Sumatra region. This study aims to describe the habitat characteristics and distribution of ichthyofauna in the Alas-Singkil watershed. Observations and data collection were carried out in 2021-2022 in all river segments in the Alas-Singkil watershed, including the downstream, swamp, oxbow lake, middle, upstream, and tributaries. Habitat characteristics in the Alas-Singkil watershed are very diverse. Some swamps in the main river's lower to middle reaches allow the ichthyofauna to migrate laterally. In the middle of the main tributaries (sub-watersheds) to the upstream (most) have habitat characteristics dominated by sedimentary rock substrates with relatively moderate-strong currents. The upper reaches of the main river are dominated by rocky substrates with clear, low-medium flowing waters. During observations in the Alas-Singkil watershed, 99 species of fish from 39 families, 9 species of shrimp, 1 species of freshwater crab, 1 species of freshwater turtle, and 1 species of crocodile were collected. Spotted barb (Barbodes binotatus), Blue panchax (Aplocheilus panchax), and Mahseer fish are fishes often found and widely distributed in the Alas-Singkil watershed. The nekton found in the Alas-Singkil watershed is included in the Least Concern (LC) category at 71% and Data Deficient (DD) at 14%. However, there are 2 species (2%) in the Endangered (EN) category and 6 species (5%) in the Vulnerable (VU) category; Ompok brevirictus and Clarias microspilus are species categorized as Endangered Species.


Bahiyah SDD, Affand R. 2013. Genetic variation of population barb (Barbonymus balleroides Val. 1842) as habitat fragmentation impact in Serayu River. J. Iktiologi Indones. 13 (2) : 175–186. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v13i2.104. [in Indonesian]
Barbarossa V, Schmitt RJP, Huijbregts MAJ, Zarfl C, King H, Schipper AM. 2020. Impacts of current and future large dams on the geographic range connectivity of freshwater fish worldwide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 117 (7): 3648–3655. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1912776117
Carpenter KE, Niem VH (Eds.). 1998. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 1. Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods, in: FAO Species Identification Guide For Fishery Purposes -. FAO, Roma, pp. 1–686.
Cutler JS, Olivos JA, Sidlauskas B, Arismendi I. 2020. Habitat loss due to dam development may affect the distribution of marine-associated fishes in Gabon, Africa. Ecosphere 11 (2), e03024. https://doi.org/10.1002/ECS2.3024
Desrita, Muhtadi A, Tamba IS, Ariyanti J, Sibagariang RD. 2018. Community structure of nekton in the upstream of wampu watershed, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 19 (4): 1366–1374. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d190424
Desrita, Muhtadi A, Leidonald R, Sibagariang RD, Nurfadillah. 2020. Biodiversity of nekton in batangtoru river and its tributaries in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21 (6) : 2344–2352. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210602
Desrita, Rambey R, Muhtadi A, Onrizal O, Manurung VR, Hasibuan JS, Tamba IS. 2022. Biodiversity of nekton in the Barumun Watershed, Labuhanbatu District, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23 (5): 2426–2432. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/D230521
Dodds WK, Whiles MR. 2020. Chapter 6 – Physiography of Flowing Water, in: Freshwater Ecology. Academic Prees, pp. 121–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813255-5.00006-5
ESDM. 2021. PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero)'s Electricity Supply Business Plan for 2021 S.D. 2031, Ministerial Decree. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources. [in Indonesian]
Froese R, Pauly D. 2022. FishBase. Worldwide web electronic publication. URL http://www.fishbase.org/search.php (accessed 4.1.22).
Hadiaty RK. 2005. Diversity of Fish Species in Suaq Belimbing and Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park, Province of Nangroe Aceh Darussalam. J. Biol. Indones. 3 (9): 379–388. https://doi.org/10.14203/jbi.v3i9.3281 [in Indonesian]
Hadiaty RK, Siebert DJ. 1998. Two new species of Osteochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Sungai Lembang, Suag Balimbing Research Station, Gunung Leuser National Park, Aceh, Nordwestern Sumatra. Rev. Fr. d’aquariologie Herpetol. Journal, 25 : 1–4.
Hadiaty RK, Siebert DJ. 2001. A new species of loach, genus Nemacheilus (Osteichthyes, Balitoridae) from Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. Bull. Nat. Hist. Museum. Zool. Ser. 67 (2): 183–189.
Hauer FR, Lamberti GA, 2017. Methods in stream ecology., in: Ecosystem Structure. Academic Press, pp. 1–506.
IUCN. 2023. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2022-2 IUCN. URL https://www.iucnredlist.org/ (accessed 3.9.23).
Kottelat M. 2013. The Fishes of the Inland Waters of Southeast Asia: A Catalogue and Core Bibliography of the Fishes Known to Occur in Freshwaters, Mangroves and Estuaries. , Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 27 : 1-663.
Kottelat M, Whitten T. 1996. Freshwater Biodiversity in Asia With Special Reference to Fish. World Bank Technical Paper 343(343):1-59
Krebs C.J., 2014. Ecological methodology, 3rd ed. Harper Collins Publisher, New York, 620 pp
Liu X, Olden JD, Wu R, Ouyang S, Wu X. 2022. Dam Construction Impacts Fish Biodiversity in a Subtropical River Network, China. Diversity 14 (6), 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/D14060476/S1
Lumbantobing DN. 2010. Four New Species of the Rasbora trifasciata-Group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Northwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Copeia 2010(4): 644-670 https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-09-155
Lumbantobing DN. 2014. Four new species of Rasbora of the Sumatrana group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3764 (1):1-25 https://doi.org/10.11646/ZOOTAXA.3764.1.1
Mijangos JL, Bino G, Hawke T, Kolomyjec SH, Kingsford RT, Sidhu H, Grant T, Day J, Dias KN, Gongora J, Sherwin WB. 2022. Fragmentation by major dams and implications for the future viability of platypus populations. Commun. Biol. 5: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-04038-9
Muchlisin ZA, Akyun Q, Rizka S, Fadli N, Sugianto S, Halim A, Siti-Azizah MN. 2015. Ichthyofauna of Tripa Peat Swamp Forest, Aceh province, Indonesia. Check List 11 (2): 1560–1560. https://doi.org/10.15560/11.2.1560
Muchlisin ZA, Siti-Azizah MN. 2009. Diversity and distribution of freshwater fishes in aceh water, Northern-Sumatra, Indonesia. Int. J. Zool. Res. 5 (2): 62–79. https://doi.org/10.3923/IJZR.2009.62.79
Muhtadi A, Dhuha OR, Desrita, Siregar T, Muammar M. 2017. Habitat conditions and diversity of necton in catchman area of Wampu river, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra Province. Depik 6 (2) : 90–99. https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.6.2.5982 [in Indonesian]
Muhtadi A, Leidonald R, Desrita. 2020. Habitat characteristics and water quality status in the Batangtoru Watershed, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 454 012092. DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/454/1/012092
Muhtadi A, Aldiano R, Khairunnisa, Leidonald R. 2022. Morphometric characteristics of the Alas-Singkil drainage basins. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 977 012090. DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/977/1/012090
Ng HH. 2003. Kryptopterus geminus, a new species of silurid catfish (Teleostei: Siluridae) from mainland Southeast Asia. Zootaxa 305 (1): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.11646/ZOOTAXA.305.1.1
Ng HH, Hadiaty RK. 2005. Two new bagrid catfishes (Teleostei: Bagridae) from the Alas River drainage, northern Sumatra . Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 16 (1): 83–92.
Ng HH, Hadiaty RK. 2008. Glyptothorax plectilis, a new species of hillstream catfish from northern Sumatra (Teleostei: Sisoridae) , in: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, pp. 137–147.
Ng HH, Hadiaty RK. 2009a. Ompok brevirictus, a new catfish (Teleostei: Siluridae) from Sumatra. Zootaxa 2232 (1) : 50–60–50–60. https://doi.org/10.11646/ZOOTAXA.2232.1.3
Ng HH, Hadiaty RK. 2009b. Glyptothorax ketambe, a new catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from northern Sumatra. Zootaxa 2085 (1) : 61–68. https://doi.org/10.11646/ZOOTAXA.2085.1.5
Ng HH, Hadiaty RK. 2011. Clarias microspilus, a new walking catfish (Teleostei: Clariidae) from northern Sumatra, Indonesia. J. Threat. Taxa 3 (3) : 1577–1584. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2386.1577-84
Ng HH, Wijoatmodjo S, Hadiaty RK, 2001a. A Mystus punctifer, a new species of bagrid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from northern Sumatra. Raffles Bull. Zool. 49 (2) : 355–358
Ng HH, Wijoatmodjo S, Hadiaty RK. 2001b. Hemibagrus caveatus, a new species of bagrid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from northern Sumatra. Raffles Bull. Zool. 49 (2) : 359–361.
Ng HH, Wijoatmodjo S, Hadiaty RK. 2004. Kryptopterus piperatus, a new species of silurid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from northern Sumatra. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters, 15 (1): 91-95,
Odum EP, Barrett GW. 2005. Fundamental of Ecology, 5th ed. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, Belmont, CA, 624 pp
PUPR. 2015. Public Works and Public Housing Infrastructure Statistical Information Book. Minister For Public Works and Human Settlements, Jakarta, 100 p;p. [in Indonesian]
Putri D, Sitorus H, Muhtadi A. 2017. Fish diversity at mangrove ecosystem of Jaring Halus Villlage in Langkat Regency, North Sumatera Dhiandra. Depik 6 (2) : 145–152. https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.6.2.6656 [in Indonesian]
Radwan M, Willems P, El-Sadek A, Berlamont J. 2003. Modelling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in river water using a detailed and a simplified model. Int. J. River Basin Manag. 1 (2) : 97–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2003.9635196
Rahayu LN, Windarta J, 2022. Overview of Hydropower and Hydropower and Hydropower Development Potential and Policies in Indonesia. J. Energi Baru dan Terbarukan 3 (2) : 88–98. https://doi.org/10.14710/JEBT.2022.13327[in Indonesian]
Rauf A, Rahmawaty, Hidayat Y, Slamet B. 2015. Watershed Management: An Integrated Management Plan for the Batang Girl Watershed, North Sumatra, 1st ed. Conservation International Indonesia, Jakarta, 207pp. [in Indonesian]
Rohim N, Sulistiono S, Yulianda, F. 2022. Aquatic environmental characteristic of Singkil Swamp Wildlife Reserve in Aceh Singkil Regency. Depik 11 (1) : 7–15. https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.11.1.22863
Taufiqurrahman A, Windarta J. 2020. Overview of the Potential and Development of Water Energy Utilization in Indonesia. J. Energi Baru dan Terbarukan 1 (3) : 124–132. https://doi.org/10.14710/JEBT.2020.10036[in Indonesian]
Wowor D, Muthu V, Meier R, Balke M, Cai Y, Ng PKL. 2009. Evolution of life history traits in Asian freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) based on multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 340–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.YMPEV.2009.01.002
Yule CM, Sen YH. 2004. Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region. Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 852

Most read articles by the same author(s)