Foliar stomata characteristics of tree species in a university green open space




Abstract. Susilowati A, Novriyanti E, Rachmat HH, Rangkuti AB, Harahap MM, Ginting IM, Kaban NS, Iswanto AH. 2022. Foliar stomata characteristics of tree species in a university green open space. Biodiversitas 23: 1482-1489. Stomata, a gas regulatory system of leaves, provide a great chance to investigate the interaction between plants and their environment. Stomata consist of surrounded by two guard cells. Stomata are found in all parts of the plant that are exposed to the air, especially the leaves. In identifying a plant species, it is necessary to have epidermal characteristics such as stomata to complete the taxonomic data. Several studies have been conducted on the type of stomata on the leaves of some dicotyledonous and monocot plants, but not many have reported similar studies on green space. Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) campus also plays an important function as green space (GS) in Medan City due to its richness in tree collection number and species. In line with the effort in o maximizing the role of trees as the core element of green space, exploring the characteristics of stomata is important to conduct. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the leaf stomata characteristics of several tree species in the green open space of the USU campus. A total of 83 tree species were taken for their leaves to investigate the stomata characters. Three healthy mature leaves on the lower part of newly grown branches were collected from each plant. The replica and the nail polish method were employed for stomata slice making. The stomata type, length, wide, density and distribution were observed. The result showed that 83 tree species in the USU campus have varied stomata types, with the percentage were highest characteristic found in paracytic (91.46%), followed by anomocytic (6.02%), anisocytic (1.20%), and diacytic (1.20%). The longest stomata were observed in Antidesma bunius (32.04 ????????). The widest stomata were noticed in Garcinia mangostana (37.62 ????????). Meanwhile, the shortest and narrowest stomata were found in Shorea laevis, which were 5.43 ???????? and 3.72 ????????, respectively. The species with the highest stomatal density was Schleichera oleosa (4294 mm-2). According to the study, the tree species at USU generally have high stomata density, length, and width, making them more suitable for green space. Species with a high number and density of stomata and a large size are much more likely to adsorb pollutants such as carbon monoxide.


Ahmet O, Umit S, Naile GP, Adnan K. 2014. The effect of different nursery conditions on some of the leaf and stomata characteristics in Chestnuts. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 87: 190-195. DOI:10.5073/JABFQ.2014.087.027
Alushi I, Veiz X. 2020. Effects of air pollution on stomatal responses, including paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration, in leaves of Hedera helix. Albanian J. agric. sci 19 (1): 21-28.
Antunes WC, Provart NJ, Williams TCR, Loureiro ME. 2012. Changes in stomatal function and water use efficiency in potato plants with altered sucrolytic activity. Plant Cell Environ 35: 747-759.
Aono AH, Nagai JS, Dickel GdSM, Marinho RC, de Oliveira PEAM, Papa JP, Faria FA. 2021. A stomata classification and detection system in microscope images of maize cultivars. PLoS ONE 16(10).
Baraldi R, Neri L, Costa F, Facini O, Rapparini F, Carriero G. 2018. Ecophysiological and micromorphological characterization of green roof vegetation for urban mitigation. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 37: 24-32,
Bertolino LT, Caine RS, Gray JE. 2019. Impact of stomatal density and morphology on water-use efficiency in a changing world. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 225. DOI=10.3389/fpls.2019.00225
Boer HJD, Price CA, Wagner-Cremer F, Dekker SC, Franks PJ, Veneklaas EJ. 2016. Optimal allocation of leaf epidermal area for gas exchange. New Phytol 210: 1219-1228.
Bozchaloyi SE, Keshavarz M. 2014. Micro-and macro-morphological study of Stellaria (Caryophyllaceae) and its closest relatives in Iran Phytologia Balcanica 20: 179-197.
BPS Statistic of Medan Municipality. 2020. Medan Municipality in Figure 2020. BPS-Statistic of Medan Municipality, Medan.
Camargo MBA, Marenco RA. 2013. Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia. Acta Amazonica 41(2): 205-212.
Chen ZC, Feng JX, Wan XC. 2018. Stomatal behaviours of aspen (Populus tremuloides) plants in response to low root temperature in Hydroponics. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 65: 512-517. DOI:10.1134/S1021443718040106
Davies RG, Barbosa O, Fuller RA, Tratalos J, Burke N, Lewis D, Warren PH, Gaston KJ. 2008. City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography. Urban Ecosystem 11: 269- 287. DOI:10.1007/s11252-008-0062-y
Fanourakis D, Giday H, Milla R, Pieruschka R, Kjaer KH, Bolger M, Vasilevski A, Nesi AN, Fiorani F, Ottosen CO. 2015. Pore size regulates operating stomatal conductance, while stomatal densities drive the partitioning of conductance between leaf sides. Ann Bot 115(4): 555-565. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu247
Gago J, Douthe C, Florez-Sarasa I, Escalona JM, Galmes J, Fernie AR, Flexas J, Medrano H. 2014. Opportunities for improving leaf water use efficiency under climate change conditions. Plant Science 226: 108–119.
Gillner S, Korn S, Rolof A. Leaf-gas exchange of fve tree species at urban street sites. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry 41:113-24. DOI:10.48044/jauf.2015.012
Gulwadi GB, Mishchenko ED, Hallowell G, Alves S, Kennedy M. 2019. The restorative potential of a university campus: Objective greenness and student perceptions in Turkey and the United States. Landscape Urban Planning 187: 36-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.03.003.
Gupta A. 2016. Effect of air pollutants on plant gaseous exchange process: effect on stomata and respiration. Plant Responses to Air Pollution: 85-92.
Han D, Shen H, Duan W, Chen L. 2019. A review on particulate matter removal capacity by urban forests at different scales. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 48.
Harris BJ, Harisson CJ, Hetherington AM, Williams TA. 2020. Phylogenomic evidence for the monophyly of Bryophytes and the reductive evolution of stomata. Current Biology 30(11): 2001-2012.
Haworth M, Elliott-Kingston C, McElwain JC. 2011. Stomatal control as driver of plant evolution. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(8): 2414-2423. doi:10.1093/jxb/err086
Hubbard KE, Webb AAR. 2016. Circadian rhythms in stomata: physiological and molecular aspects. In S Mancuso, S Shabala, eds, Rhythms in Plants: Dynamics Responses in a Dynamic Environment. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp 231–255
Idu M, Olorunfemi DI, Omonhinmin AC. 2000. Systematics value of stomata in some Nigerian hardwood species of Fabaceae. Plant Biosystems 134(1): 53-60. DOI: 10.1080/11263500012331350345
Inoue S I, Kinoshita T. 2017. Blue light regulation of stomatal opening and the plasma membrane H1-ATPase. Plant Physiology 174: 531-538.
Khan F, Yousaf Z, Ahmed HS, Arif A, Rehman HA, Younas A, Rashid M, Tariq Z, Raiz N. 2014. Stomatal patterning: an important taxonomic tool for systematical studies of tree species of angiosperm. Annual Research and Review in Biology 4(24): 4034-4053.
Khoiroh Y, Harijati N, Mastuti R. 2014. Pertumbuhan serta hubungan kerapatan stomata dan berat umbi pada Amorphophallus muelleri Blume dan Amorphophallus variabilis Blume. Jurnal Biotropika 5: 65-67.
Lawson T, Blatt MR. 2014. Stomatal size, speed, and responsiveness impact on photosynthesis and water use efficiency. Plant Physiology 164: 1556-570. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.237107
Li D, Li X, Xi B, Santana VH. Evaluation of method to model stomatal conductance and its use to assess biomass increase in poplar trees. Agricultural Water Management 259.
Lüttge U, Buckeridge M. 2020. Trees: structure and function and the challenges of urbanization. Trees.
Martínez-Vilalta J, Garcia-Forner N. 2016. Water potential regulation, stomatal behaviour and hydraulic transport under drought: Deconstructing the ISO/anisohydric concept. Plant, Cell Environmnt 40(6): 962-976.
Metcalfe CR, Chalk L. 1979. Anatomy of the dicotyledonous, systematic anatomy of the leaf and stem. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Millstead L, Jayakody H, Patel H, Kaura V, Petrie PR, Tomasetig F, Whitty M. 2020. Accelerating automated stomata analysis through simplified sample collection and imaging techniques. Frontiers Plant Science. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.580389
Mitra S, Maiti GG, Maity D. 2015. Structure and distribution of heteromorphic stomata in Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R. Br. (Malvaceae, formerly Sterculiaceae). Adansonia 37(1): 139-147.
Nowak DJ, Hirabayashi S, Bodine A, Greenfield E. 2014. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States. Environmental Pollution 193: 119-129.
Nowak DJ, Hirabayashi S, Doyle M, McGovern M, Pasher J. 2018. Air pollution removal by urban forests in Canada and its effect on air quality and human health. Urban Forest and Urban Greening 29: 40-48.
Oliveira MWS, da Silva NR, Casanova D, Pinheiro LFS, Kolb RM, Bruno O. 2014. Automatic counting of stomata in epidermis microscopic images. IX Workshop de Visão Computacional.
Raharjo HP, Haryanti S, Budihastuti R. 2015. Pengaruh tingkat kepadatan lalu lintas dan waktu pengamatan yang berbeda terhadap ukuran dan jumlah stomata daun glodokan (Polyalthia longifolia Sonn). Jurnal Biologi 4(1):73-84.
Rai R, Rajput M, Agrawal M, Agrawal SB. 2011. Gaseous air pollutants: a review on current and future trends of emissions and impact on agriculture. Journal of Scientific Research 55: 77-102.
Rudall PJ, Chen ED, Cullen E. 2017. Evolution and development of monocot stomata. American Journal of Botany 104: 1122-1141. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1700086
Salisbury FB, Ross CW. 1995. Fisiologi Tumbuhan. ITB Press, Bandung.
Samiyarsih S, Santoso S, Lestari S, Ardiyuda D, Fitrianto N. 2020. Ability of wayside trees as Pb absorbent on Jl Jenderal Soedirman Purwokerto. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 550 (2020) 012024 doi:10.1088/1755-1315/550/1/012024
Shahzad R, Waqas M, Khan AL, Hamayun M, Kang SM, Lee IJ. 2015. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate induced physio-hormonal changes in Pisum sativum under diverse temperature regimes. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 96: 406-416.
Susilowati A, Rangkuti AB, Rachmat HH, Iswanto AH, Harahap MM, Elfiati D, Slamet B, Ginting IM. 2021. Maintaining tree biodiversity in urban communities on the university campus. Biodiversitas 22(5): 2839-2847. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220548
Tor-ngeren P, Leksungoen N. 2020. Investigating carbon dioxide absorption by urban trees in a new park of Bangkok, Thailand. BMC Ecology 20.
Tripathi S, Modal AM. 2014. Comparative (Quantitative and Qualitative) Studies of stomata of selected six medicinally viable species of Cassia L. International Journal of Life Sciences Biotechnology and Pharma Research 1(3): 104-113.
Tudorie CAM, Vallés-Planells M, Gielen E, Arroyo R, Galiana F. 2020. Towards a greener university: Perceptions of landscape services in campus open space Sustainability 12 6047.
Ullah F, Zafar M, Amhad M, Sultana S, Ullah A, Shah SN, Butt MA, Mir S. 2018. Taxonomic implications of foliar epidermal characteristics in subfamily Alsinoideae (Caryophyllaceae). Flora 242: 31-44.
Varshney RK, Singh VK, Kumar A, Powell W, Sorrells ME. 2018. Can genomics deliver climate-change ready crops? Currunt Opinion in Plant Biology 45: 205-211. doi: 10.1016/J.PBI.2018.03.007
Wang C, Liu S, Dong Y, Zhao Y, Geng A, Xia X, Yin W. 2016. PdEPF1 regulates water-use efficiency and drought tolerance by modulating stomatal density in poplar. Plant Biotechnology Journal 14: 849-860. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12434
Wang SW, Li Y, Zhang XL, Yang HQ, Han XF, Liu ZH, Shang ZL, Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Zhang. 2014. Lacking chloroplasts in guard cells of crumpled leaf attenuates stomatal opening: both guard cell chloroplasts and mesophyll contribute to guard cell ATP levels. Plant, Cell and Environment 37: 2201-2210.
Weber C. 2013. Ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation: A literature review. In Urban Environment: 119-131.
Zandalinas SI, Mittler R, Balfagón D, Arbona V and Gómez?Cadenas. 2018. Plant adaptations to the combination of drought and high temperatures. Physiol Plantarum 162(1): 2-12.
Zhao W, Sun Y, Kjelgren R, Liu X. 2015. Response of stomatal density and bound gas exchange in leaves of maize to soil water deficit. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 37. doi: 10.1007/s11738-014-1704-8.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>