Abstract. Abebe M. 2021. The ethnomedicinal plants used for human ailments at Mojana Wodera District, central Ethiopia. Biodiversitas 22: 4676-4686. An ethnobotanical study was carried out from March 2020 to February 2021 in selected sites of Mojana Wodera District to assess, identifying, and document medicinal plants to treat human ailments. Purposely and volunteer sampling techniques were applied to select 73 practitioners. Of those, 10 practitioners were key informants. Data was collected from informants using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation, and walk-in-the-word. The collected data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for statistical analysis. ANOVA and t-test were applied to compare the knowledge of the informants in different groups. ICF and FL values were calculated to identify the most common human ailments and heal the potential of medicinal plants. The result showed that a higher average (p< 0.05) was recorded for crucial informants, illiterate and higher aged group. Still, there was a significant difference between male and female informants (p=0.032) on knowledge of medicinal plants. A total of 45 medicinal plant species (41 genera and 27 families) were identified to treat 35 types of ailments. From this total, 15.6% were endemic for Ethiopia. Family Euphorbiaceae was dominant (11.1%) for this study. In the finding, the leaf was the most widely plant part which is used to prepare remedies (29.79%), followed by root (28.72%), and the most popular remedy preparation was pounding (31.18%). A higher ICF value (0.78) was recorded for dermatological category ailments, and the highest FL (94.12%) occurred for Laggera tomentosa, which was under the therapeutic category of the throat and respiratory.