Short Communication: Morphological study of the scales of Barbodes cf. binotatus (Cyprinidae) from Toba Lake, Indonesia by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS)




Abstract. Lubis K, Sudibyo M, Siregar EH, Laili N. 2021. Short Communication: Morphological study of the scales of Barbodes cf. binotatus (Cyprinidae) from Toba Lake, Indonesia by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Biodiversitas 22: 3821-3828. Spotted barb (Barbodes cf binotatus) is a freshwater fish of Sumatra Island, especially found in the Toba. The study of morphological characteristics of the scales of Spotted barb (B. cf binotatus) is necessary in fish taxonomy. Therefore, the present study investigated the morphology and the chemical elements of the scales located between the dorsal fin and lateral line and those on the lateral line using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that the scales of Spotted barb (B. cf binotatus) have the general morphological characteristics of cycloid scales. The morphologies of the scales between the dorsal fin and lateral line and those on the lateral line are slightly different. Lateral line scales of Spotted barb (B. cf binotatus) have no focus area, replaced by a lateral line canal located along the anterior-posterior axis of the scales with two openings. The anterior opening is bigger and wider in compared to the posterior opening. The circuli of the dorsal fin scale is orientated towards the focus. However, the circuli of the lateral scale faces the lateral line canal. The scales contain some elements such as Ca, K, O, Mg, Na, and P.


Bräger Z. and Moritz T. 2016. A scale atlas for common Mediterranean teleost fishes. 66 (3): 275–386.
Busst GMA. 2016. Fish scales as ecological indicators: Empirical approaches to improve their practical application to fish ecology. [Thesis]. Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom.
Dey S, Biswas SP, Dey S and Bhattacharyya S. P. 2014. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Scales and its Taxonomic Application in the Fish Genus Channa. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 20: 1188–1197.
Edgley ED and Genner MJ. 2019. Adaptive diversification of the lateral line system during Cichlid fish radiation. iScience 16: 1–11.
Eschmeyer WN, Fricke R, and van der Laan R. 2018. Catalog of fishes: genera, species..
Esmaeili HR and Gholami Z. 2011. Scanning electron microscopy of the scale morphology in Cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii kutum Kamenskii, 1901 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontidae). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 10 (1):155–166.
Esmaeili HR, Gholamifard A, Zarei N and Arshadi A. 2012. Scale structure of a cyprinid fish, Garra rossica (Nikol’skii, 1900) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Iranian Journal of Science & Technology. A4: 487-492.
Farah-Ayuni F, Muse AO, Samat A, and Shukor MN. 2016. Comparative scale morphologies in common freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia—A case study. AIP Conference Proceeding 1784, 060012-1–060012-6. 1784: 1-6. November 2016.
Farinordin FA, Nilam WSW, Husin SM, Samat A and Md. Nor S. 2017. Scale Morphologies of Freshwater Fishes at Tembat Forest Reserve, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana. 46(9): 1429–1439.
Froese R and Pauly D. 2019. Barbodes binotatus (Valenciennes, 1842). FishBase. 2019.
Ganzon MAM, Torres MAJ, Gorospe JJ and Demayo CG. 2012. Variations in scale morphology between sexes of the spotted barb, Puntius binotatus (Valenciennes, 1842) (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). 2nd International Conference on Environment and Bio Science. IACSIT Press. Singapore. V 44(17):80 – 84.
Harikrishna N, Mahalakshmi S, Kumar KK, Reddy G. 2017. Fish Scales as Potential Substrate for Production of Alkaline Protease and Amino Acid Rich Aqua Hydrolyzate by Bacillus altitudinis GVC11. Indian Journal of Microbiology 57(3):339–343.
Ibánez AL and O’Higgins P. 2011. Identifying fish scales: The influence of allometry on scale shape and classification. Fisheries Research. 109: 54–60.
Kartamihardja ES. 2019. Keberhasilan introduksi ikan bilih (Mystacoleucus padangensis Blkr) di Danau Toba perlu pemulihan. Warta Iktiologi. 3(1): 1-8.
Khemiri S, Meunier FJ, Laurin M and Zylberberg L. 2001. Morphology and structure of the scales in the Gadiformes (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Paracanthopterygii) and a comparison to the elasmoid scales of other Teleostei. Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 42: 345-362.
Kontas S, Yedier S and Bostancr D. 2020. Otolith and scale morphology of endemic fish Cyprinion macrostomum in Togris- Euphrates Basin. Journal of Ichtiology, 60 (4): 562-569.
Lippitsch E. 1990. Scale morphology and squamation patterns in cichlids (Teleostei, Perciformes): A comparative study. Journal of Fish Biology. 37: 265 -291.
Motamedi M, Teimori A, Amiri V, and Hesni, MA. 2020. Characterization of age-dependent variability in the flank scales of two scorpaeniformes fishes by applying light and scanning electron microscopy imaging. Micron Journal. 128 (102778): 1-47.
Nongrum R and Bhuyan RN. 2020. Comparative study of fish scale using scanning electron microscopy in two Cyprinid fishes (Neolissochilus hexagonolepsis and Neolissochilus hexastichus) found in Meghalaya, North- East India. Journal of Life Sciences. 8 (1): 77-82.
Omer AS. 2017. Review on Fish Identification Tools and Their Importance in Biodiversity and Fisheries Assessments. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 36 (6): 118-126.
Pratama R., Jusmaldi, and Nova H. 2018. Pola pertumbuhan, faktor kondisi dan habitat ikan tewaring Barbodes binotatus (valenciennes, 1842) di Sungai Hutan Berambai Samarinda. Bioprospek. 13(1):40-49.
Roesma DI, Tjong DH, Karlina W, Aidil DR. 2019. Taxonomy confirmation of Puntius cf. Binotatus from Gunung Tujuh Lake, Jambi, Indonesia based on Cytochrome Oxidase-I (COI) gene. Biodiversitas. 20 (1): 54-60.
?erban C. and Grigoras G. 2018. Structural and morphometric study of scales in Petzea Rudd (Scardinius racovitzai Müller 1958). Applied ecology and environmental research. 16(5): 6063-6076.
Sionkowska A and Koz?owskab J. 2014. Fish scales as a biocomposite of collagen and calcium salts. Key Engineering Materials Vol. 587. pp 185-190.
Thomas N. 2019. Sexual dimorphism in Barilius bendelisis (Hamilton, 1822) based on scale structure as revealed by SEM and EDX Studies. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Publications. 2 (5): 48-54.