Short communication: Physiological response to drought in North Sulawesi (Indonesia) local rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars at the tissue level in hydroponic culture




Abstract. Nio SA, Mereh RJ, Ludong DPM. 2021. Short communication: Physiological response to drought in North Sulawesi (Indonesia) local rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars at the tissue level in hydroponic culture. Biodiversitas 22: 58-64. Water availability influenced the metabolism processes in the plants and this condition could change water balance in the cells as well as restricting the growth and production of crops. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of in vitro polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000-induced water deficit on the relative water content and chlorophylls (total, a, and b) concentration as physiological response in leaf segments of North Sulawesi (Indonesia) local rice cultivars (cvs. Superwin, Ombong, Burungan, and Temo). The rice leaves were cut into 1 cm x 1 cm segments and were treated under both control (0 MPa) and water deficit (-0.25 and -0.5 MPa) using PEG 8000 as osmoticum. The experiment was factorial completely randomized block design with 4 sampling times (0, 4, 8, and 12 hours) and three replicates. Interaction of water deficit duration and PEG 8000 treatment resulted in a significant difference in leaf relative water content. The leaf relative water content at PEG -0.5 MPa after 8 and 12 hours of treatments was lower than at control (PEG 0 MPa) when the treatment commenced (0 hour). The concentration of chlorophylls (total, a, and b) were significant differences among cultivars and water deficit durations. This study showed that leaf relative water content was a potential physiological indicator of PEG 8000-induced water deficit in North Sulawesi local rice at the tissue level in hydroponic culture.


Akram HM, Ali A, Sattar A, Rahman HSU, Bibi A. 2013. Impact of water deficit stress on various physiological and agronomic traits of three basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J Anim Plant Sci 23(5): 1415-1423.
Amini R, Milani MA, Mohammadinasab AD. 2013. Physiological response of lentil (Lens culinaris Medick.) to water limitation affected by wheat straw mulch application. Int J Agron Plant Prod 4(10): 2548-2553.
Arianti AM. 2015. Effect of Various Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) 6000 on Callus Quality and Quantity and Quality Test of Vernodalin Secondary Metabolites on African (Vernonia amygdalina) Leaf Callus. [Thesis]. Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi. UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim. Malang.[Indonesian].
Ballo M, Nio SA, Pandiangan D, Mantiri F. 2012. Morphological response of rice to water deficit at the germination phase. Jurnal Bioslogos 2(2):88–95. [Indonesian] DOI:
Banyo Y, Nio SA, Siahaan P, Tangapo A. 2013. Leaf chlorophyll content in rice under polyethylene-glycol-induced water deficit. Jurnal Ilmiah Sains 13(1):1–8. [Indonesian]
Dinas Pertanian dan Peternakan Sulawesi Utara. 2011. Rice field potential based on the type of irrigation in North Sulawesi. Manado. [Indonesian]. DOI/URL is unavailable
Gibon Y, Sulpice R, Larher F. 2000. Proline accumulation in canola leaf discs subjected to osmotic stress is related to the loss of chlorophylls and to the decrease of mitochondrial activity. Physiol Plant 110 (4): 469-476.
Hendriyani IS, Setiari N. 2009. The chlorophyll content and growth in long beans (Vigna sinensis) under different water availability of water. Jurnal Sains&Mat 17(3):145–150. [Indonesian]
Kristanto BA, Indradewa D, Ma’as A, Sutrisno RD. 2014. Leaf senescence, leaf chlorophyll content and grain yield in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) under water-stressed condition. AgroUPY VI (1): 38-49. [Indonesian].
Kumar RR, Karajoi K, Naik GR. 2011. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced water stress on physiological and biochemical responses in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Recent Res Sci Technol 3(1):148-152.
Nio SA. 2010. Evaluation of concentration of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b in leaves as indicators of water deficit in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Jurnal Ilmiah Sains 10 (1):86-90.
Nio SA, Colmer TD, Wade LJ, Cawthray G. 2011. Osmotic adjustment and solutes accumulation in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during water deficit. J Math Sci16:43–48.
Nio SA, Ludong DPM. 2014. Comparing the drought tolerance of local rice cultivar Superwin with other cultivars in North Sulawesi Province based on dry matter partitioning. Proceeding International Conference on Global Resource Conservation 4(1): 17-22.
Nio SA, Ludong DPM, Wade LJ. 2018. Comparison of leaf osmotic adjustment expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water deficit between the whole plant and tissue levels. Agric Nat Res 52:33–38.
Nio SA, Pirade M,. Ludong DPM. 2019. Leaf chlorophyll content in North Sulawesi (Indonesia) local rice cultivars subjected to polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000-induced water deficit at the vegetative phase. Biodiversitas 20 (9): 2462-2467. Available from
Pharmawati M, Wirasiti NN, Wrasiati LP. 2017. Morphological responses and aquaporin gene expression in rice IR64 under drought stress at the reproductive stage. Jurnal Bios Logos 7(2):60-65.
Prihastanti E. 2010. The chlorophyll concentration and growth of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) sprout under different water deficit levels. Jurnal Bioma 12(2):35–39. [Indonesian].
Setiawan A. 2016. Consumer behavior in purchasing organic rice. [Thesis]. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Lampung. Bandarlampung. Available from
Shivakrishna P, Ashok Reddy K, Manohar Rao D. 2018. Effect of PEG-6000 imposed drought stress on RNA content, relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll content in peanut leaves and roots. Saudi J Biol Sci 25:285-289.
Tjolleng F, Siahaan P, Nio SA. 2019. The level of leaf total chlorophyll in North Sulawesi local rice under partial submergence. Jurnal MIPA UNSRAT Online 8(2):51-54. [Indonesian].
Tubur HW, Chozin MA, Santosa E, Junaedi A. 2012. Agronomic responses of low land rice varieties to drought periods. J Agron Indonesia 40(3): 167-173.
Vangelis H, Spiliotis M, Tsakiris G. 2011. Drought severity assessment based on the bivariate probability analysis. Water Res Manag 2(5): 357-371.