The diversity of wild orchids in the southern slope of Mount Merapi, Yogyakarta, Indonesia eight years after the 2010 eruption




Abstract. Kurniawan FY, Putri F, Suyoko A, Masyhuri H, Sulistianingrum MP, Semiarti E. 2020. The diversity of wild orchids in the southern slope of Mount Merapi, Yogyakarta, Indonesia eight years after the 2010 eruption. Biodiversitas 21: 4457-4465. The ecosystem of the slopes of Mount Merapi is mountain tropical forest which is frequently affected by volcanic activities. The dynamics of the volcano affect the diversity and abundance of orchids in the ecosystem. Tritis is an area included in the Turgo Hill of the southern slope of Mount Merapi and is under the management of Mount Merapi National Park. The ecosystem in Tritis area classified as lower mountain forest and it has been affected by Mount Merapi eruption. This study aimed to do an inventory of orchid species in Tritis to know the diversity and abundance of orchids that exist in this area. In particular, we were interested to investigate the diversity after the 2010 eruption. The sampling was done using plot method by establishing four observation plots with size of each plot was 500 m x 20 m. The orchids found were identified using literature and we calculated the density, frequency, relative density, relative frequency and important value index. This study found 24 species of orchids, consisting of 15 species of epiphytic orchids, 6 terrestrial species, 2 holomycotropic species and 1 semiterrestrial species. There were 6 species of orchids with the highest density and 2 species with the highest frequency value. Thrixspermum sp. and Mycaranthes oblitterata were the most dominant species in Tritis based on important value index. Overall, the diversity of orchids in Tritis can be categorized as high, likely because Tritis environment supports the growth of epiphytic orchids, but it is less favorable for the growth of terrestrial, holomycotropic and semiterrestrial orchids. The results of this study can serve as baseline information to monitor the dynamics of orchid diversity and abundance in relation to the highly volcanic activities of Mount Merapi.


Ardie WS. 2006. Pengaruh intensitas cahaya dan pemupukan terhadap pertumbuhan dan pembungaan Hoya diversifolia Blume. [Eng: Effect of light intensity and fertilization on growth and flowering in Hoya diversifolia Blume]. [Thesis]. Graduate School, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. [Indonesian]
Chase MW, Cameron KM, Freudenstein JV, Pridgeon AM, Salazar GA, van den Berg C, Schuiteman A. 2015. An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Bot J Linn Soc 177: 151-174.
Comber JB. 1990. Orchids of Java. Bentham-Moxon Trust, Surrey.
Comber JB. 2001. Orchid of Sumatra. The Royal Botanic Garden Kew, London.
Fitch CM, Barbara BP, Margaret EBJ. 1997. Orchids for the home and greenhouse. Brooklyn Botanical Garden, Washington.
Gegenbauer C, Huber W, Pupulin F, Rakosy D, Speckmaier M, Wanek W, Weber A, Weissenhofer A. 2013. Orchids: botanical jewels of the Golfo Dulce Region, Costa Rica. Verein zur Förderung der Tropenstation La Gamba, Vienna.
Goetz JD, Price JS. 2015. Ecohydrological controls on water distribution and productivity of moss communities in western boreal Peatlands, Canada. Ecohydrol. 2015: 1-15.
Google Earth. 2020. (August 07, 2020).
Howard CC, Folk RA, Beaulieu JM, Cellinese N. 2019. The monocotyledonous underground: global climatic and phylogenetic patterns of geophyte diversity. Am. J. Bot. 106: 850-863.
Jacquemyn H, Micheneau C, Roberts DL, Pailler T. 2005. Elevational gradients of species diversity, breeding system and floral traits of orchid species on Réunion Island. J. Biogeogr. 32: 1751-1761.
Karger DN, Lehtonen S, Amoroso VB, Kessler M. 2012. A new species of Lindsaea (Lindsaeaceae, Polypodiopsida) from M Hamiguitan, Mindanao, Philippines. Phytotaxa 56: 15-20.
Kiswiranti D, Kirbani H. 2013. Analisis statistik temporal erupsi Gunung Merapi. [Eng: Temporal statistical analysis of Mount Merapi eruption]. Jurnal Fisika 3: 37-42.
Korkmaz M, Ilhan V. 2015. Distribution, traditinal use and conservation of geophyte plants growing around Ke?i? Mountain, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge (IJSRK) 3: 187-197.
Merckx VSFT. 2013. Mycoheterotrophy: the biology of plants living on fungi.Springer Science+Business Media, New York.
Metusala D, Supriatna J. 2017. Gastrodia bambu (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), A new species from Java, Indonesia. Phytotaxa 317: 211-218.
Musavi A. 2015. Protected areas and indigenous communities: anthropogenic dependence and impact on biodiversity. Partridge Publishing, India.
Odum EP. 1998. Dasar dasar ekologi. [Eng: Basic of Ecology]. Universitas Gadjah Mada Press, Yogyakarta. [Indonesian]
Oishi Y. 2018. Evaluation of the water-storage capacity of Bryophytes along an altitudinal gradient from temperate forests to the Alpine zone. Forests 433: 1-14.
Omon RM, Adman B. 2007. Pengaruh jarak tanam dan teknik pemeliharaan terhadap pertumbuhan kenuar (Shorea johorensis Foxw.) di hutan semak belukar wanariset Samboja, Kalimantan Timur [Eng: The effect of spacing and maintenance techniques on growth of kenuar (Shorea johorensis Foxw.) in the heritage scrub forest of Samboja, East Kalimantan]. J Penelitian Dipterokarpa I: 47-54.
Pratiwi E. 2010. Pengaruh pupuk organik dan intensitas naungan terhadap pertumbuhan porang (Amorphophallus onchophyllus). [Eng: Effect of organic fertilizers and shade intensity on porang growth (Amorphophallus onchophyllus)]. [Thesis]. Graduate School, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. [Indonesian]
Proches S, Cowling RM, Goldblatt P, Manning JC, Snijman DA. 2006. An overview of the Cape geophytes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 87: 27-43.
Rakhmawati U. 2008. Pengelolaan kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi yang berkelanjutan dan berbasis masyarakat dengan kampanye pride. [Eng: Sustainable and community-based management of Mount Merapi National Park area with the pride campaign]. Yayasan Kanopi Indonesia, Yogyakarta. [Indonesian]
Ribeiro RV, Machado EC, de Oliveira RF. 2006. Temperature response of photosynthesis and its interaction with light intensity in sweet orange leaf discs under non-photorespiratory condition. Ciênc. agrotec. 30: 670-678.
Schuttleworth FS, Zim HS, Dillon GW. 1970. A golden guide orchids. Western Publishing Company Inc, New York.
Semiarti E. 2012. Kebutuhan inovasi dalam pengembangan industri anggrek yang berdaya saing dan berbasis sumber daya lokal. [Eng: The need for innovation in development of a competitive orchid industry based on local resources]. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Anggrek 2012, Medan.
Semiarti E, Purwantoro A, Puspita Sari I. 2020. Biotechnology approaches on characterization, mass propagation, and breeding of Indonesian orchids Dendrobium lineale (Rolfe.) and Vanda tricolor (Lindl.) with its phytochemistry. In: Merillon JM, Kodja H (eds) Orchids Phytochemistry, Biology and Horticulture. Reference Series in Phytochemistry, Springer, Cham.
Setiaji A, Muna A, Jati FP, Putri F, Semiarti E. 2018. Keanekaragaman anggrek di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. [Eng: Orchid diversity in Special Region of Yogyakarta]. Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indon. 4: 63-68.
Smith AJE. 1982. Bryophyta ecology. Champman and Hall, London.
Soetopo L, Saputra ND. 2019. The existence of genetic diversity in maintaining epiphytic orchids germplasm in Pronojiwo Conservation Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia. Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 270: 1-10.
Sulistyono. 2011. Buku panduan identifikasi anggrek Merapi 1st ed. [Eng: Merapi orchid’s identification guidelines]. Yayasan Kanopi Indonesia, Yogyakarta. [Indonesian]
Suryowinoto M. 1987. Mengenal anggrek alam Indonesia. [Eng: Get to know Indonesia's natural orchids]. PT Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. [Indonesian]
Susila H, Wibowo ARU, Nugroho IB, Bait M, Atmaja MB, Pamuji AC, Sukoco T, Wardhana H. 2011. Eksplorasi dan inventarisasi anggrek di Lereng Selatan Gunung Merapi: data terakhir sebelum erupsi 2010. [Eng: Exploration and inventory of orchids on South Slope of Mount Merapi, latest data before 2010 eruption]. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Konservasi Tumbuhan Tropika, Cibodas.
Sutiyoso Y, Sarwono B. 2006. Merawat anggrek. [Eng: Care for orchids]. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta. [Indonesian]
The Plant List. 2020. The Plant List, A Working List of All Plant Species Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; (August 12, 2020).
Thery M. 2001. Forest light and its influence on habitat selection. Plant Ecol. 153: 251-261.
Valladares F, Laanisto L, Niinemets U, Zavala MA. 2016. Shedding light on shade: ecological perspectives of understorey plant life. Plant Ecol Divers 9: 237-251.
Zhang S, Yang Y, Li J, Qin J, Zhang W, Huang W, Hu H. 2018. Physiological diversity of orchids. Plant Divers 40, 196-208.