Short Communication: Antibacterial effect of red betel (Piper crocatum) extract in combination with vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

YUSTINA SRI HARTINI
LAURENTIUS HARTANTO NUGROHO
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7887-6860

Abstract

Abstract. Hartini YS, Nugroho LH. 2020. Short Communication: Antibacterial effect of red betel (Piper crocatum) extract in combination with vancomycin against  Staphylococcus aureus. Biodiversitas 21: 3271-3274.  The occurrence of bacterial resistance to a single antimicrobial compound has prompted the search for antimicrobials in the form of compound combinations. The current study was performed to show the antibacterial effect of red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav.) in combination with vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus. The combination of the antibacterial compounds from plant with the antibacterial drug was expected to increase antibacterial activity resulted in the reduction of resistance. The interaction effect of extract and antibiotic combination was performed using the microdilution checkerboard method. The combination of red betel extract with vancomycin showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater inhibition growth of S. aureus compared to red betel or vancomycin alone. The addition of red betel extract to vancomycin reduced Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) vancomycin to be a-4 fold reduction against S. aureus. There was a synergistic effect of the red betel extract in combination with vancomycin against S. aureus. It is the potential result for future research on the infectious treatment of S. aureus resistant to vancomycin.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Aldulaimi OA 2017. General overview of phenolic from plant to laboratory, good antibacterial or not. Phcog Rev.11(22):123-127.
Basri DF and Khairon R 2012. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time –Kill Assay. Evid Based Complementary and Alternat Med. 493156:1-6.
Bulusu KC, Guha R, Mason DJ, Lewis RPI, Muratov E, Motamedi YK, Cokol M and Bender A 2016. Modelling of compound combination effects and applications to efficacy and toxicity: state-of-the-art, challenges and perspectives. Drug Discov Today 2: 225-238.
Chambers HF and DeLeo FR 2009. Waves of Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the Antibiotic Era. Nat Rev Microbiol 7(9): 629-641.
Cheesmas MJ, Ilanko A, Blonk B and Cock IE 2017. Developing new antimicrobial therapies: Are synergistic combination of plant extracts/compounds with conventional antibiotics the solution?. Phcog Rev 11:57-72.
Demetrio L, Valle Jr, Andrade JI, Puzon JM, Cabrera EC and Rivera WL 2015. Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippines medicinal plants against multidrugs-resistant bacteria. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7:532-540.
Deresinski S 2009. Vancomycin in combination with other antibiotics for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Clin Infec Dis 49(7):1072-1079.
Hasan R, Acharjee M and Noor R 2016. Prevalence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from burn wound infections. Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 28:49-53.
Healy VL, Lessard IAD, Roper DI, Knox JR and Walsh CT 2000. Vancomycin resistance in enterococci: reprogramming of the D-Ala-D-Ala ligases in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Chemistry & Biology 7(5):109-119.
Ifandari, Widyarini S, Nugroho LH, Pratiwi R 2020. Phytochemical Analysis and cytotoxic activities of two distinct culltivars of Ganyong rhizomes (Canna indica) against the WiDr colon cancer cell line. Biodiversitas 21 (4):1660-1669.
Jain SN, Vishwanatha T, Reena V, Divyashree BC, Aishwarya S, Siddhalingeswara KG, Venugopal N and Ramesh I 2011. Antibiotic Synergy Test: Checkerboard Method on Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int Res J Pharm 2(12): 196-198.
Kosropanah H, Bazargani A, Ebrahimi H, Eftekhar K, Emami Z and Esmailzadeh S 2012. Assessing the Effect of Pineapple Extract Alone and in Combination with Vancomycin on Streptococcus sanguis. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 7(4):140-143.
Kusuma ASF, Zuhrotun A and Meidina FB 2016. Antibacterial Spectrum of Ethanol Extract of Indonesian Red Piper Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) Against Staphylococcus species. Int J Pharma Sci and Res 7(11):448-452.
Leclerecq R 2009. Epidemiological and resistance issues in multidrug-resistant staphylococci and enterococci, Clin Microbiol Infect 15:224-231.
Moussaoui F and Alaoui T 2015. Evaluation of antibacterial act ivity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6(1):32-37.
Nosten F and White NJ 2007. Artemisinin-Based Combination Treatment of Falciparum Malaria, Am J Trop Med Hyg. 77(Suppl 6):181-192.
Nugroho LH, Sutikno, Susandarini R, Yuliati IR, Priyono Y, Munawaroh E, and Astuti IP. 2019. Comparative leaf and stem anatomy of ten Piper species form Indonesia. Asian J Agric & Biol 7(3): 434-441.
Ramon-Garcia S, Carol Ng, Anderson H, Chao JD, Zheng X, Gay Y, Roberge M and Thompsom 2011. Synergistic Drug Combinations for tuberculosis therapy identified by a novel high-throughput screen. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother Agustus: 3861-3869.
Semeniuc CA, Pop CR and Rotar AM 2013. Antibacterial activity and interactions of plant essential oils combinations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J Food and Drug Anal. 25: 403-408.
Talei GR, Mohammadi M, Bahmani M and Kopaei MR 2017. Synergistic effect of Carum copticum and Mentha piperita essential oils with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and gentamicin on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Int J Pharma Investig 7:82-7.
Taukoorah U, Lall N and Mahomoodally F 2016. Piper betle L. (betel quid) shows bacteriostatic, additive, and synergistic antimicrobial action when combined with conventional antibiotics, S African J Bot 105:133-140.
Williamson EM 2001. Synergy and other interaction in phytomedicines. Phytomedicine 8:401-409.
Yang Y, Zhang Z, Li S, Ye X, Li X, and He K 2014. Synergy effects of herbs extracts: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics basis. Fitoterapia 92(January):133-147.