Abundance of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the functional groups in two different habitats




Abstract. Triyogo A, Budiadi, Widyastuti SM, Subrata SA, Budi SS. 2020. Abundance of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the functional groups in two different habitats. Biodiversitas 21: 2079-2087. Land development often affects the quantity and diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine and compare the ant species abundance and the functional groups between two different habitats, representing land development, including pioneer and agroforestry. This research involved a survey of the ants at the Forest Research Education (FRE) of Wanagama I Yogyakarta, and data were accumulated over a period of five months (April, May, June, July, and August). In addition, pit-fall trap and direct collection methods were used, involving the placement of 54 pit-fall traps at two habitats, and the ant specimens were retrieved after a two day period. The results show the total individual abundance of 2,310 and 2,067, on agroforestry and pioneer, respectively. Furthermore, the species richness and diversity index was higher in agroforestry (7; 2.01), compared with pioneer (6; 1.49), where the three dominant species include, Anoplolepis gracilipes, Solenopsis sp., Odontoponera denticulata; and Anoplolepis gracilipes, Odontoponera denticulata, Camponotus sp., respectively. Conversely, the highest amount of invasive ants (Solenopsis sp.) was observed in agroforestry, which negatively impacted on the presence of native species (Odontoponera denticulata). In addition, PCA analysis showed the development of three ant groups on each habitat, hence agroforestry made more real differences in the aspect of species abundance, and none in terms of richness. Therefore, notable differences were observed in the ant communities between both habitats, and agroforestry was indicated as a disturbed area, based on the increment in tramp and invasive ants, alongside low abundance of native and functional groups.


Agosti D, Alonso LE. 2000. The ALL protocol. Ants: Standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington DC 280:204-206.
Andersen AN. 1995. A classification of Australian ant communities, based on functional groups which parallel plant life-forms in relation to stress and disturbance. Journal of biogeography 15-29.
Andersen AN. 2018. Responses of ant communities to disturbance: Five principles for understanding the disturbance dynamics of a globally dominant faunal group. Journal of Animal Ecology 88(3): 350-362. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12907.
Ascunce MS, Yang CC, Oakey J, Calcaterra L, Wu WJ, Shih CJ, Goudet J, Ross KG, Shoemaker D. 2011. Global invasion history of the ?re ant Solenopsis invicta. Science 331: 1066–1068.
Bolton B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Harvard University Press.
Bos MM, Tylianakis JM, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. 2008. The invasive yellow crazy ant and the decline of forest ant diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforests. Biological Invasions 10: 1399-1409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-008-9215-4
Brown VK. 1984. Secondary succession: insect-plant relationships. Bioscience 34(11): 710-716.
Buma B, Bisbing S, Krapek J, Wright G. 2017. A foundation of ecology rediscovered: 100 years of succession on the William S. Cooper plots in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecology 98(6): 1513-1523.
Chan KH, Guénard B. 2019. Ecological and socio-economic impacts of the red import fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on urban agricultural ecosystems. Urban Ecosystems 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00893-3
Dassou AG, Carval D, Dépigny S, Fansi G, Tixier P. 2015. Ant abundance and cosmopolites sordidus damage in plantain fields as affected by intercropping. Biological Control 81: 51-57.
Dassou AG, Tixier P. 2016. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local?scale plant diversity: a meta?analysis. Ecology and evolution 6(4): 1143-1153.
Del Toro I, Ribbons RR, Pelini SL. 2012. The little things that run the world revisited: a review of ant-mediated ecosystem services and disservices (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 17: 133–146.
Diamé L, Rey JY, Vayssières JF, Grechi I, Chailleux A, Diarra K. 2018. Ants: Major functional elements in fruit agro-ecosystems and biological control agents. Sustainability 10(1): 23.
Drescher J, Blüthgen N, Feldhaar H. 2007. Population structure and intraspecific aggression in the invasive ant species Anoplolepis gracilipes in Malaysian Borneo. Molecular Ecology 16(7): 1453-1465.
Drescher J, Feldhaar H, Bluthgen N (2011) Interspeci?c aggression and resource monopolization of the invasive ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in Malaysian Borneo. Biotropica 43:93–99
Gómez C, Casellas D, Oliveras J, Bas JM. 2003. Structure of ground-foraging ant assemblages in relation to land-use change in the northwestern Mediterranean region. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 2135-2146.
Gray RE, Ewers RM, Boyle MJ, Chung AY, Gill RJ. 2018. Effect of tropical forest disturbance on the competitive interactions within a diverse ant community. Scientific Reports 8(1): 5131.
Gillespie RG, Reimer N. 1993. The effect of alien predatory ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Hawaiian endemic spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae).
González E, Buffa L, Defagó MT, Molina SI, Salvo A, Valladares G. 2018. Something is lost and something is gained: loss and replacement of species and functional groups in ant communities at fragmented forests. Landscape ecology 33(12): 2089-2102.
Hashimoto Y, Mohamed M. 2010. Ground-dwelling ant diversity in Maliau Basin, Borneo: Evaluation of hand-sorting methods to estimate ant diversity. Tropics 19(2): 85–92.
Heterick BE. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Perth, Australia: Western Australian Museum.
Hölldobler B, Wilson EO. 1990. The ants. Harvard University Press.
Jiang XJ, Liu W, Wu J, Wang P, Liu C, Yuan ZQ. 2017. Land degradation controlled and mitigated by rubber based Agroforestry systems through optimizing soil physical conditions and water supply mechanisms: A case study in Xishuangbanna, China. Land Degradation a Development 28(7): 2277-2289.
Krebs CJ. 2009. Ecology: The experimental analysis of distribution and abundance. 6th Ed. Hlm. 655.
Kwon TS, Lee CM, Sung JH. 2014. Diversity decrease of ant (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) after a forest disturbance: different responses among functional guilds. Zoological Studies 53(1): 37.
Li Q, Hoffmann BD, Lu ZX, Chen YQ. 2017. Ants show that the conservation potential of afforestation efforts in Chinese valley-type savanna is dependent upon the afforestation method. Journal of insect conservation 21(4): 621-631. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-017-0005-0.
Majer JD, Nichols OG. 1998 Long-term recolonization patterns of ants in Western Australian rehabilitated bauxite mines with reference to their use as indicators of restoration success. Journal of Applied Ecology 35(1): 161-182.
McArthur AJ. 2007. A key to Camponotus Mayr of Australia, pp. 290-351. In Snelling, RR, BL. Fisher, and PS. Ward (eds). Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): homage to EO. Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 80.
McGlynn TP, 1999. The worldwide transfer of ants: Geographichal Distribution and Ecological Invasions. Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Menzel F, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N. 2008. Selective interspecific tolerance in tropical Crematogaster–Camponotus associations. Animal Behaviour 75(3): 837-846.
Meyer ST, Neubauer M, Sayer EJ, Leal IR, Tabarelli M, Wirth R. 2013. Leaf-cutting ants as ecosystem engineers: topsoil and litter perturbations around Atta cephalotes nests reduce nutrient availability. Ecological Entomology 38(5): 497–504. doi: 10.1111/een.12043
Morisita M. 1959. Measuring of the dispersion of individuals and analysis of the distributional patterns. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. E 2(21): 5-23.
Orivel J, Leroy C. 2011. The diversity and ecology of ant gardens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Spermatophyta: Angiospermae). Myrmecological News, 14: 73-85.
Patient DF, Nchiwan NE, Koehler H. 2019. Abundance and diversity of insect pests on maize, cowpea and okra in a comparative experiment testing effects of intercropping and insecticide in the Cameroonian Guinean savannah and Sudano Sahelian agro-ecological zones. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 1-20.
Pielou EC. 1969. An introduction to mathematical ecology. An introduction to mathematical ecology.
Pecarevic M, Danoff-Burg J, Dun RR. 2010. Biodiversity on broadway-enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae) on the streets of New York City. Plos One 5(10): e13222. https://doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013222
Pumarino L, Sileshi GW, Bripenberg S, Kaartinen R, Barrios E, Muchane MN, Midega C, Jonsson M. 2015. Effects of agroforestry on pest, disease and weed control: a meta-analysis. Basic and Applied Ecology. 16(7): 573-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2015.08.006
Rabitsch W. 2011. The hitchhiker’s guide to alien ant invasions. BioControl 56(4): 551-572.
Radchenko A, Dlussky GM. 2019, June. First record of the ant genus Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Late Eocene European ambers. In Annales Zoologici (Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 417-421). Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Read JL, Andersen AN. 2000. The value of ant's as early warning bioindicators: responses to pulsed cattle grazing at an Australian arid zone locality, J Arid Environ 45: 231-251.
Ribeiro-Júnior MA, Rossi RV, Miranda CL, Ávila-Pires TC. 2011. Influence of pitfall trap size and design on herpetofauna and small mammal studies in a Neotropical Forest. Zoologia 28(1).
Rubiana R, Rizali A, Denmead LH, Alamsari W, Hidayat P, Pudjianto, Hindayana D, Clough Y, Tscharntke T, Buchori D. 2015. Agricultural land use alters species composition but not species richness of ant communities. Asian Myrmecology 7: 73-85.
Sandifer PA, Sutton-Grier AE, Ward BP. 2015. Exploring connections among nature, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human health and well-being: Opportunities to enhance health and biodiversity conservation. Ecosystem Services 12: 1-15.
Sanfiorenzo A, Sanfiorenzo M, Vargas R, Waits L, Finegan B. 2018. Potential pollinators of understory populations of Symphonia globulifera in the Neotropics. Journal of Pollination Ecology 22.
Santos JC, Del-Claro K. 2009. Ecology and behaviour of the weaver ant Camponotus (Myrmobrachys) senex. Journal of Natural History, 43(23-24): 1423-1435.
Schultz TR. 2000. In search of ant ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 14028–14029.
Schultz TR, McGlynn TP. 2000. The interactions of ants with other organisms. In: Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity (Agosti D, Majer JD, Alonso LE, Schultz TR, eds.), Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington DC (US) 122-144.
Shahabudin. 2011. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: Experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Jurnal Biodiversitas 12(3): 177-181.
Sinu PA, Sibisha VC, Reshmi MN, Reshmi KS, Jasna TV, Aswathi K, Megha PP. 2017. Invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) disrupts pollination in pumpkin. Biological invasions 19(9): 2599-2607.
Stewart PLC, Richards G, Wickenden ABJ. 2014. The control of yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes). An Empirical Study. International Journal of Ecology and Development 27(1): 56-63.
Supriyo H, Matsue N, Yoshinaga N. 1992. Chemistry and mineralogy of some soils from Indonesia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 38: 217–225.
Supriyo H. 2004. Perkembangan Fisik. In: Pramudibyo RIS, Suseno OH, Supriyo H, Soekotjo, Naiem M, Iskandar U. Dari bukit-bukit gundul sampai ke Wanagama-1. Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya. Yogyakarta. Pp: 41-69
Supriyo H, Prehaten D, Figyantika A. 2013. Soil properties of eight forest stands resulted from rehabilitation of degraded land on the tropical area for almost a half century. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan 20: 294-302
Terayama, MAMO. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17: 81-266.
Torralba M, Fagerholm N, Burgess PJ, Moreno G, Plieninger T. 2016. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services? A meta-analysis. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 230: 150-161.
Triyogo A, Suryanto P, Widyastuti SM, Baresi AD, Zughro IF. 2017. Kemelimpahan dan struktur tingkat trofik serangga pada tingkat perkembangan agroforestri jati yang berbeda di Nglanggeran, Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 11(2): 239-248.
Triyogo A, Widyastuti SM, Budiadi, Budi SS, Varanita S. 2019. The diversity of ants in different land develompental: An agroforestry phase approach. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 13. 161-170.
Tschinkel WR. 2006. The fire ants. Belknap/Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Tschinkel WR, King JR. 2017. Ant community and habitat limit colony establishment by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Functional ecology 31(4): 955-964.
Van Noordwijk M, Tata HL, Xu J, Dewi S, Minang PA. 2012. Segregate or integrate for multi-functionality and sustained change through rubber-based agroforestry-the future of global land use. Pg 69-104. Springer. Dordrecht.
Vicente RE, Dáttilo W, Izzo TJ. 2014. Differential recruitment of Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius) ants in response to ant garden herbivory. Neotropical Entomology 43: 519-525. doi:10.1007/s13744-014-0245-6
Vicente RE, Prado LP, Izzo TJ. 2016. Amazon rainforest ant-fauna of Parque Estadual do Cristalino: Understory and Ground-Dwelling Ants. Sociobiology 63: 894-908. doi:10.13102/sociobiology.v63i3.1043
Wang C, Strazanac JS, Butler L. 2001. Association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and habitat characteristics in oak-dominated mixed forests. Environmental Entomology 30(5): 842-848.
Wetterer JK. 2005. Worldwide distribution and potential spread of the long- legged ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 45:1–21.
Wheeler BW, Lovell R, Higgins SL, White MP, Alcock I, Osborne NJ, Husk K, Sabel CE, Depledge MH. 2015. Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. International Journal of Health Geographics 14(1): 17.
Woodcock P, Edwards DP, Fayle TM, Newton RJ, Khen CV, Bottrell SH, Hamer KC. 2011. The conservation value of South East Asia’s highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 366(1582): 3256–3264.
Yamane S. 2009. Odontoponera denticulata (F. Smith) (Formicidae: Ponerinae), a distinct species inhabiting disturbed areas. Ari 32: 1-8.
Zettler JA, Taylor MD, Allen CR, Spira TP. 2004. Consequences of forest clearcuts for native and nonindigenous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97: 513–518. https://doi.org.ezproxy.ugm.ac.id/10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[0513:COFCFN]2.0.CO;2

Most read articles by the same author(s)