Morphology and anatomy of the fruit and seed of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson




Abstract. Nurhayani FO, Wulandari AS, Suharsi TK. 2019. Morphology and anatomy of the fruit and seed of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson. Biodiversitas 20: 3199-3206. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson is one of the Annonaceae family which has high benefits for humans such as constructions, furniture, cosmetics, perfumes, and traditional medicines. The planting efforts were needed to support the existence of these plants. These plants have low regeneration and germination. The morphology and anatomy of fruit and seed could enhance the understanding of the reproductive biology in the species. There is little information about the morphology and anatomy of fruit and seed of C. odorata var. odorata forma genuina. The aim of this study is to understand the morphology and anatomy of fruit and seed of C. odorata. The morphologic description was made from the analysis of the fresh fruits and seeds. The anatomical description was made from the analysis of permanent slides with longitudinal sections of the fruits and seeds. The samples were fixed, dehydrated, alcoholized, embedding in paraffin, and stained with safranin-fast green. Data analysis consists of the morphological observation (shape, color, size and the number of seeds per fruits) and the anatomical observation (the pericarp layers of fruit, the seed coat layers, and the structure in the seed). The fruit of C. odorata var. odorata forma genuina was fleshy, ovoid or obovoid, 0.98-2.75 cm long, 0.42-1.63 cm in diameter, and contain 1-12 seeds. The seeds were pale brown, flattened, ovoid, and hard. The fruit anatomy showed that the pericarp layers derived from parenchymatous cells and differentiated into three zones, i.e. exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. The seed has ruminated endosperm with irregular folds. The seed coat was divided into three integuments, i.e. outer, middle, and inner integument. The information about the fruit and seed anatomy of C. odorata var. odorata forma genuina might enhance the understanding of future studies regarding natural reproduction and conservation programs with generative propagation.


Anggia M, Mutiar S, Arziyah D. 2018. Teknologi Ekstraksi Bunga Kenanga (Cananga Odorata L.) dan Sereh Wangi (Cymbopogon Nardus L. ) Sebagai Aroma Terapi Sabun Cair. Jurnal Daur Lingkungan 1(1): 5 – 9.
Ayuningtyas P, Hakim L. 2014. Ethnobotany of welcoming "Month Sura" Ceremony at Site Natural Tourism Sedudo Water Fall, Nganjuk. Biotropika 2 (1): 31-39.
Bayer C, Appel O. 1996. Ocurrence and taxonomic significance of ruminate endosperm. Bot.Rev 62(4):301-310.
Brokl M, Fauconnier ML, Benini C, Lognay G, du Jardin P, Focant JF. 2013. Improvement of ylang-ylang essential oil characterization by GC×GC-TOFMS. Molecules 18: 1783-1797.
Budi JJS, Damayanti NLY, Dhani YR, Dewi NPA. 2018. Ekstraksi dan karakterisasi minyak atsiri bunga kenanga (cananga odorata) dan aplikasinya sebagai penolak nyamuk pada lotion dan parfum. Jurnal Kimia 12(1): 19-24.
Cheng J, Yang K, Zhao NN, Wang XG, Wang SY, Liu ZL. 2012. Composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cananga odorata leaves against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Jurnal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(8): 3482 – 3486.
Dutsuria N, Hikamah SR, Sudiarti D. 2016. Efektivitas antibakteri bunga kenanga (Cananga odorata) dengan metode konvensional terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus. Bioshell. 5(1):324-332.
Handa AK, Hernandez MET, Mattoo AK. 2012. Fruit development and ripening: a molecular perspective. Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture 405-424. doi:
Handayani T. 2018. Diversity, Potential and Conservation of Annonaceae in Bogor Botanic Gardens, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 19(2): 546–558. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d190230
Handayani T. 2008. Studi perilaku perkecambahan benih dan morfologi pertumbuhan semai kenanga (Cananga odorata Lam. Hook.F & Thoms). Buletin Kebun Raya Indonesia 11(1):23–29.
Hulyati R, Syamsuardi, Ardinis A. 2014. Ethnobotany studies of Balimau tradition in Pariaman, West Sumatra. J Biologi Universitas Andalas 3 (1): 14-19.
Johnson DM, Murray NA. 2018. A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Tropical Africa. Phyto Keys 97: 1 – 252.
Krishnamurthy KV. 2015. Growth and Development in Plants. Scientific Publishers, Tiruchirappalli.
Martinez FM, Miranda DL, Magnitskiy S. 2013. Anatomy of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) seeds (Annonaceae). Agronomia Colombiana 31(3): 279 – 287.
Marzinek J, Mourao KSM. 2003. Morphology and anatomy of the fruit and seed in development of Chorisia speciosa A. St.-Hil. – Bombacaceae. Revista Brasil. Bot 26 (1): 23 – 34.
Maulidya R, Aisyah Y, Haryani S. 2016. Pengaruh jenis bunga dan waktu pemetikan terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan aktivitas antibakteri minyak atsiri bunga kenanga (Cananga odorata). Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pertanian Indonesia 8(2): 53 – 60.
Murwani EKA. 2012. Struktur anatomi buah dan biji sirsak (Annona muricata) mulwo (Annona reticulata), dan srikaya (Annona squamosa). Jurnal Biologi Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam 5(2):112 – 117.
Nurfadilah S, Hapsari L, Abywijaya IK. 2017. Species richness, conservation status, and potential uses of plants in Segara Anakan Area of Sempu Island, East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18(4):1568 – 1588.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. 2009. Cananga odorata. Agoforestry Database 4:1–5.
Parrotta JA. 2009. Cananga odorata (Lam) Hook.f. & Thoms., 1855. Enzyklopadie der Holzgewachse 54:1-8.
Pujiarti R, Widowati TB, Kasmudjo, Sunarta S. 2015. Kualitas, komposisi kimia, dan aktivitas antioksidan minyak kenanga (Cananga odorata). Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 9(1): 3 – 11.
Rao PRM. 1983. Seed and fruit anatomy in Eupomatia laurina with a discussion ofthe affinities of Eupomatiaceae. Flora 173:311-319.
Retamales HA, Cabello A, Serra MT, Scharaschkin T. 2014. Anatomical studies of the flower, fruit and seeds of Myrceugenia rufa (Myrtaceae). Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 63: 89 – 100.
Rodrigues BRA, Nitsche S, Mercadante MO, Pereira MCT, Ribeiro LM. 2018. Climatic seasonality influences the develompment of pollen grains and fruiting in Annona squamosa. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 150:240-148. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2018.03.025.
Sari GWP, Supartono. 2014. Ekstraksi minyak kenanga (Cananga odorata) untuk pembuatan skin lotion penolak serangga. Jurnal MIPA 37(1) 62 – 70.
Sass JE. 1951. Botanical Microtechnique. The Iowa State College Press, Iowa.
Silva ACD, Souza LAD. 2009. Morphology and anatomy of the developing fruit and seed of Dalechampia stipulacea Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). Maringá 31(4): 425 – 432.
Svoma E. 1997. Seed development and function in Artabotrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae). P1ant. Syst. Evol. 207:205-223.
Svoma E. 1998. Seed morphology and anatomy in some Annonaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol 209:177-204.
Tan LTH, Lee LH, Yin WF, Chan CK, Kadir HA, Chan KG, Goh BH. 2015. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and bioactivities of Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. doi:
Turner I, Veldkamp J. 2009. A history of cananga. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 61(1):189–204.
Wakhidah A, Silalahi M, Pradana DH. 2017. Inventory and conservation plant of oke sou traditional ceremony; A welcoming tradition of maturity girl on the community of Lako Akediri Village, West Halmahera, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 18 (1): 65-72.
Wietzke A, Westphal C, Gras P, Kraft M, Pfohl K, Karlovsky P, Pawelzik E, Tscharntke T, Smit I. 2018. Insect pollination as a key factor for stawberry physiology and marketable fruit quality. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment. 258:197-204.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.036.
Yulianti, Wijayanto N, Siregar I, Darma IGK. 2015. Morfologi, anatomi dan kandungan kimia benih mindi dari berbagai asal benih. Jurnal Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan 3(1):9–19.
Zhang N, Zhang L, Feng L, Yao L. 2016. The anxiolytic effect of essential oil of Cananga odorata exposure on mice and determination of its major active constituents. Phytomedicine 23:1727-1734.