Morphological characters, phenolic and flavonoid contents of Vitex trifolia accessions from Lamongan District, Indonesia




Abstract. Nisa A, Kurniawati A, Faridah DN. 2023. Morphological characters, phenolic and flavonoid contents of Vitex trifolia accessions from LamonganDistrict, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 24: 1635-1641. Indonesia is a country with high biodiversity. Legundi (Vitex trifolia L.) is one of the plant species that has long been used as a raw material for traditional herbal medicine. This study aims to determine the morphological, agronomic, leaf production, and total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the V. trifolia accession from Lamongan District, East Java, Indonesia. Morphological and agronomic characterizations were observed using qualitative and quantitative parameters. The colorimetric method determined the total phenolic and flavonoid content in V. trifolia extract. The results showed differences in morphological and agronomic characters between accessions. The Bluluk accession had the highest leaf production that did not differ from the Pucuk, Sekaran, and Kedumpring accessions, while the Modo accession had the lowest. There was no difference in total phenol and flavonoid content between accessions. Leaves had the highest total phenolic content (3210.57 GAE mg/100 g dry powder), followed by twigs (1331.98 GAE mg/100 g dry powder) and fruit (973.77 GAE mg/100 g dry powder). Leave also contained the highest flavonoid content (1792.90 QE mg/100 g dry powder).The highest phenolic and flavonoid content in the leaves of V. trifoliamay support its use in traditional medicine.  


Albuquerque BR, Heleno SA, Oliveira MBPP, Barros L, Ferveira ICFR. 2021. Phenolic compounds: curret industrial aplications, limitations and future challenges. The Royal Society of Chemistry 12: 14-29. Doi. 10.1039/d0fo02324h.
Alfarabi M, Turhadi., Suryowati T, Imaneli NA, Sihombing CO. 2022. Short communication: Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and extracts of Vitex negundo. Biodiversity 23: 2663-2667. Doi. 10.13057/biodiv/d230550.
Arifin B, Ibrahim S. 2018. Structure, bioactivity and antioxidant of flavonoid. Zara Journal 6: 21-29. Doi.
Arpiwi NL, Muksin IK, Kriswiyanti E. 2020. Essential oil from Vitex trifolia as an effective repellent for Aedes aegypti. Biodiversity 21: 4536-4544. Doi. 10.13057/biodiv/d211060.
Betty B, Aziz SA, Suketi K. 2021. The effects of different rates of chicken manure and harvest intervals on the bioactive compounds of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del.). Journal Of Tropical Crop Science 8: 80-88. Doi.
[BPS] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Central Bureau of Statistics. 2018.Online Database Center.Lamongan Geophysics Station. [Internet]. [Downloaded March 2022 22]. Available on:
Chan EWC, Lye PY, Wong SK. 2016. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba. Chinese J. Nat. Med 14: 17-30.
Chan EWC, Wong SK, Chan HT. 2018. Casticin from Vitex species: a short review on its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. J Integrasi Med 16: 147-152. Doi.
Dwinatari IK, Murti YB. 2015. The effect of harvesting time and degree of leaves maturation on vitexicarpin level in legundi leaves (Vitex trifolia L.). Trad. Med. J 20: 105-111. Doi.
Fang SM, Liu R, Li l, Yao JL, Liu EW, Zhang H, Gao XM. 2018. Anti-inflammatory diterpenes from fruits of Vitex trifolia L. var . simplicifolia Cham. Journal of asian natural products. 1-7.
Febjislami S, Melati M, Kurniawati A, Wahyu Y. 2018. Agronomy character and sinensetin content of several java’s tea plant accession (Orthosiphon stamineus). J. Hort. Indonesian 9: 206-215. Doi.
Gong G, Shen Y, Lan H, Jin J, An P, Zhang L, ChenL, Peng W, Luan X, Zhang H. 2021. The cyr61 is a potential target for rotundifuran, a natural labdane-type diterpene from Vitex trifolia L., to trigger a poptosis of cervical cancer cells. Oxidative Medicine And Cellular Longevity. Article 6677687.
Hanudin E, Murti YB, Setiawan M, Ikawati Z. 2015. Relationship of soil quality and vitexicarpine content in the leaves of Vitexlia L. African Journal of Agricultural Research 10: 2680-2686. Doi.
Heim, Edgar. 2015. “Flora and Vegetation of Bali Indonesia”. pp 148-149. Harstellung und Verlag Bod Book on Demands Norderstedt.
Herbie T. 2015. Book of Medicinal Plants. 226 Medicinal Plants for Healing Diseases and Health Body. Yogyakarta: Octopus Publishing House Hermansyah, Sasmita Y, Inoriah E. 2009. Use of foliar fertilizers and manipulation of the number of branches left in the second harvest of patchouli plants. Agrosia Deed 12: 194- 203.
Hetharie H, Raharjo SHT, Jambormias E. 2018. Grouping of sweet potato clones based on cluster, principal components and biplot analyses of morphological characters. J. Hort. Indonesian 46: 276–282. doi: 10.24831/jai.v46i3.18215.
Hidayat D, Hardiansyah G. 2012. Study of the diversity of medicinal plant species in the IUPHHK area of PT Sari Bumi Kusuma Camp Tontang, Sintang District. J. Vocational 8: 61–68.
Khamweera P, Jarupinthusopshon S. 2021. Total phenolic content, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Vitex trifolia L. extracts. Phranakhon Rajabhat Research Journal Science and Technology 16: 148-160
Koley TK, Maurya A, Tripathi A, Singh BK, Singh M, Bhutia TL, Tripathi PC, Singh B. 2018. Antioxidant potential of commonly consumed underutilized leguminous vegetables. International Journal of Vegetable Science 25: 362-372. Doi.
Kurniawan E, Rahayu A, Mulyaningsih Y. 2019. Agronomic characters of various katuk plant accessions (Sauropus androgynus L. merr) on administration of various doses of bovine urine. Journal of Agronida. 5: 78-89. Doi.
Lattanzio V. 2013. Phenolic Compounds: Introduction. Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM (eds). Natural products. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin.
Masungsong LA, Aicala AA, JR, CEB, Belarmino MM. 2022. Classfying fifty-seven Cucumis (Curcubitaceae) accessions into six species using leaf architectural traits. Biodiversitas 23: 4006-4017. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230819.
Musa N, Banerjee S, Maspalma GA. 2020. Assessment of the phytochemical, antioxidant and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from Simpleleaf Chastetree (Vitex trifolia) leaves obtained from Ganye Local Government, Adamawa State-Nigeria. Materials Today: Proceedings. Elsevier.
Natheer S, Sekar E, Amutharaj P, Rahman A, Khan K. 2012. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Morinda citrifolia, Vitex trifolia and Chromolaena odorata. African Journal of Pharmacy And Pharmacology 6: 783-788. DOI: 10.5897/AJPP11.435.
Nurlela, Nurfalah R, Ananda F, Ridwan T, Ilmiawati A, Nurcholis W, Takemori H, Batubara I. 2022. Variation of morphological characteristics, total phenolic, and total flavonoid in Adenostemma lavena, A. Madurense, and A. Platyphyllum. Biodiversitas 23: 3999-4005. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d230818.
Occhiuto PN, Peralta IE, Asprelli PD, Galmarini CR. 2014. Characterization of capsicum germplasm collected in northwestren argentina based on morphological and quality traits. Agriscientia 31: 63-73. Doi.
Popoola JO, Bello OU, Obembe OO. 2016. Phenotypic intraspecific variability among some acceaaions of drumstick (Moringa oleifera L.). Canadian Journal Of Pure And Applied Sciences 10: 3681-3695.
Pothitirat W, Chomnawang TM, Supabphol R, Gritsanapan W. 2009. Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity. Fitoterapia 80: 442-447. Doi.
[POWO] Plant Of The Word Online. 2022. Royal Botanic Gardens. [Oktober 28 2022].
Putriani A, Prayogo H, Wulandari RS. 2019. Characteristics of stomata on trees in university green open spaces Tanjungpura City of Pontianak.J Hut Lestari 7: 746-751. Doi.
Raiswati T, Melati M, Aziz SA, Rafi M. 2018. Evaluation of agro-physiological character and Relationship Analysis 10 Accessions of Perennial Showthistle (Sonchus arvensis L.) on in situ environmen. J. Hort. Indonesian 9: 63-72. Doi.
Rani A, Sharma A. 2013. The genus Vitex : A review. Pharmacognosy Reviews 7: 188-198. Doi.10.4103/0973-7847.120522
Rebaya A, Belghith SI, Baghdikian B, Leddet VM, Mabrouki F, Oliver E, Cherif JK, Ayadi MT. 2014. Total phenolic, total flavonoid, tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of Halimium halimifolium (Cistaceae). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 5: 52-57. Doi. 10.7324/JAPS.2015.50110.
[SCV] Socfindo Conservation. 2022. Habitus Vitex trifolia L. [Internet]. [2022 November 5].
Saklani S, Mishra AP, Chandra H, Atanassova MS, Stankovia M, Sati B, Shariati AA, Nigam M, Kha MU, Plygun S, Elmsellen H, Suleria HAS. 2017. Comparative evaluation of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities between ethanol extracts of Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia L. leaves by different methode. Plants journal 6: 1-11. Doi.
Salvana FR, Eco K, Madarcos NR, Bautista N. 2019. Leaf morphological characterization and cluster analysis of Vitex negundo morphotypes. Environmental and Experimental Biology 17: 75-83. Doi.
Sembiring EN, Elya B, Sauriasari R. 2018. Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different parts of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Pharmacogn J 10: 123-127. Doi. 10.5530/pj.2018.1.22
Setiadi A, Khumaida N, Ardie SW. 2017. Diversity of some black turmeric (Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.) accessions based on morphological characters. J. Hort. Indonesian 45: 71-78. Doi.
Setiawati E, Kurniawati A, Widodo WD, Faridah DN. 2018. Growth of black cumin (Nigela sativa L.) at different shading and nitrogen rates. J. Hort. Indonesian 46: 202-207.
Shukri NABM, Hasan MH. 2021. Pharmalogical review of Vitex trifolia. International Journal of Pharmaceuticals Nutraceuticals And Cosmetic Science 3: 49-65
Sukarsih Y, Arfiansyah R, Roska TP, Murdifin M, Kasim S, Nainu F. 2021. Protective effect of ethanol extract of legundi (Vitex trifolia L.) leaves against Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila infection model. Bioinferface Research In Applied Chemistri 11: 1389-13996. Doi.
Syafrida M, Darmanti S, Izzati M. 2018. Effect of drying temperature on water content, flavonoid levels and activity antioxidants from the leaves and tubers of sedge grass (Cyperus rotundus L.). Bioma 20: 44-50. Doi.
Tjitrosoepomo G. 2008. Plant Morphology. Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University Press
Tungmunnithum D, Thongboonyu A, Pholboon A, Yangsabai A. 2018. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds from medical plants for pharmaceutical and medical aspects: an overview. Medicines Journal 5: 2-16. Doi.
Tiwari N, Thakur J, Saikia D, Gupta MM. 2013. Antitubercular diterpenoids from Vitex trifolia. Phytomedicine 20: 605–610. Doi.
Vongsak B, Sithisarn P, Mangmool S, Thongpraditchotec S, Wongkrajangc Y, Gritsanapan W. 2013. Maximizing total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract by the appropriate extraction method. Industrial Crops and Products 44: 566-571. Doi.