Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Dillenia excelsa leaf




Abstract. Lisdiani, Susanto D, Manurung H. 2022. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Dillenia excelsa leafBiodiversitas 23: 3827-3835The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical compounds, total flavonoid, and phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Martelli ex Gilg (or tanikkara) leaves. Sample D. excelsa leaves were obtained from swamp forests in Melintang Village, Muara Wis sub-district, Kutai Kartanegara district, East Kalimantan province, Indonesia. This research includes sample preparation, extraction and maceration, extract concentration using a rotary evaporator, phytochemical test, total phenolic andflavonoid content test, and antioxidant activity test using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power methods (FRAP). The results of this study indicate that the methanolic extract of D. excelsa leaves contains secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, triterpenoids, and tannins. The total phenolic content was 181.25 g GAE/g extract, while the total flavonoid content was 36 g QE/g extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of D. excelsa leaf DPPH method had moderate activity strength with a value of IC50is 145 ppm, while the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of D. excelsa leaf using the FRAP method has the highest antioxidant activity value at a concentration of 100 ppm with a value of 70.833%. The result indicated that the methanolic extract D. excelsa leaves had many metabolites and potentially an antioxidant.


Agus C, Ardiyanti DT, Syahbudi A, and Basori AF. 2014. Indonesian Rare Plants at KP4 Gadjah Mada University. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press [Indonesian]
Alfarabi M, Turhadi, Suryowati T, Imaneli NA and Sihombing PO. 2022. Antioxidant activity and metabolite profiles of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex negundo. Biodiversitas 23(5): 2663-2667
Aris SRS, Mustafa S, Ahmat NJaafar FM, and Ahmad R. 2009. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fruit of Ficus dettoidea var. Angustifolis sp. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 13(2): 146-150
Armansyah T, Siregar TN, Suhartono, and Sutriana A. 2022. Phytochemicals, characterization and antimicrobial tests of red betel
leaves on three solvent fractions as candidates for endometritis phytotherapy in Aceh cattle, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23 (4): 2111-2117
Astarina NWG, Astuti KW and Warditiani NK. 2013. Phytochemical Screening of Bangle Rhizome Methanol Extract (Zingiber purpureum Roxb). Jurnal Farmasi Udayana. 2 (4): 1-7 [Indonesian]
Bordoloi B and Das S. 2019. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and to Evaluate Anti-Oxidant Property on Root Extract of Dillenia Indica (Elephant Apple). Int J. Current Pharmaceutical Research 11(4): 128-133
Bose U, Gunasekaran K, Bala V, and Rahman AA. 2010. Evaluation of Phytochemical and Pharmacological of Dillenia indica Linn Leaves. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 5(5): 222-228.
Devitria, R. 2020. Antioxidant Activity Test of Ciplukan Leaf Methanol Extract Using 2,2 Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazil (DPPH) Method. Penelitian Farmasi Indonesia. 9 (1): 31-36 [Indonesian]
Ergina E, Nuryanti S and Pursitasari ID. 2014. Qualitative Test of Secondary Metabolic Compounds on Palado Leaves (Agave angustifolia) Extracted with Water and Ethanol Solvents . Jurnal Akademika Kimia. 3 (3): 165-172. [Indonesian]
Gogoi BJ, Tsering J and Goswami BC. 2012. Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Dillenia Indica L. Fruit of Sonitpur, Assam, India. Int J. Pharmaciutical Sciences & Research. 3(120): 4909-4912
Gunawan DH. 2018. Decrease in saponin compounds in aloe vera gel by boiling and steaming Food Technology: Media Informasi Dan Komunikasi Ilmiah Teknologi Pertanian 9(1): 41-44. [Indonesian]
Handarni D, Putri SH, and Tensiska T. (2020). Phytochemical Qualitative Screening of Antibacterial Compounds in Guava Leaf Extract (Psidium guajava L.). Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Tropis dan Biosistem, 8(2): 182-188. [Indonesian]
Hanin NNF, and Pratiwi, R. (2017). Phenolic Content, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Fertile and Sterile Sea Paku (Acrostichum aureum L.) Leaf Extract in the Mangrove Area of Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 2(2): 51-56.
Harborne JB. 1996. Phytochemical Methods Guiding Modern Ways of Analyzing Plants. Translators: Kosasih Padmawinata and Iwan Soediro. Bandung: ITB Press [Indonesian]
Harborne JB. 1987. Phytochemical Methods (Second Edition). Bandung: ITB Press [Indonesian]
Herawati E, Ramadhan R, Ariyani F, Marjenah, Kusuma IW, Suwinarti, Mardji D, Amirta R and Arung ET. 2021. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of wild mushrooms growing in tropical regions. Biodiversitas 22(11): 4716-4721
Herdiani N, and Wikurendra EA. 2020. Antioxidant Effect of Rosella Petals Extract on Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. An-Nadaa Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, 7(2), 89-93. [Indonesian]
Hidayat and Hardiansyah. 2012. Study on the Diversity of Medicinal Plant Species in the IUPHHK PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma Camp Tontang, Sintang Regency. Jurnal Vokasi. 8 (2): 61-68 [Indonesian]
Ieamkheng S, Santibenchakul S and Sooksawat N.2022. Potential of Maranta arundinacea residues for recycling: Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Biodiversitas 23(3): 1204-1210
Illing I, Safitri W, and Erfiana. 2017. Dengen Fruit Extract Phytochemical Test. Jurnal Dinamika. 8 (1): 66-84 [Indonesian]
Irnawati, Purba W, Mujadillah R and Sarmayani. 2017. Determination of Vitamin C Levels and Antioxidant Activity Test of Songi Fruit Extract (Dillenia serrata Thunb.). Against DPPH Radical (Diphenylpicrylhydrazil. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi. 6 (2): 40-44 [Indonesian]
Kristian J, Zain S, Nurjanah S, Widyasanti A, and Putri SH. 2016. Effect of extraction time on yield and quality of white jasmine flower oil using solvent extraction method. Jurnal Teknotan, 10(2): 34-43. [Indonesian]
Kuntari Z, Sumpono S, Nurhamidah N. 2017. Antioxidant Activity of Secondary Metabolites of Moringa oleifera L. (Moringa) Root Endophytic. Alotrop 1(2): 80-84 [Indonesian]
Kuspradini H, Pasedan WF, and Kusuma IW. 2016. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Pometia pinnata leaf extract.. Jurnal Jamu Indonesia, 1(1): 26-34. [Indonesian]
Lerebulan C, Fatimah F, and Poentoh J. 2018. Yield and Total Phenolics of Coconut Milk in Various Levels of Maturity. Jurnal MIPA 7 (1): 44-46 [Indonesian]
Liana and Murningsih T. 2019. Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic and Flavonoid Content Total Bark Extract of Dillenia auriculata (Dilleniaceae). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia. 5 (1): 129-133 [Indonesian]
Mailuhu M, Runtuwene M, and Koleangan H. 2017. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Soyogic Bark (Saurauia Bracteosa DC) Methanol. Chemistry Progress, 10(1): 1-6 [Indonesian]
Malik A, Edward F, and Waris R. 2014. Phytochemical screening and determination of the total flavonoid content of the methanolic extract of the boroco herb (Celosia argentea L.). Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia, 1(1): 1-5. [Indonesian]
Manurung H, Kustiawan W and Marjenah, M. 2017. Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) on Different Plant Organs and Ages. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 5 (6): 120-125. [Indonesian]
Manurung H., Kustiawan W, and Kusuma IW. 2019. Effect of Drought Stress on Growth and Total Flavonoid Level of Barito Tabat Plant (Ficus deltoidea Jack). Jurnal Holtikultura Indonesia. 10 (1): 55-62. [Indonesian]
Martelli ex Gilg (1893, October)
Maryam ST, Baits M and Ainun N. 2015. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera Lam) Ethanol Extract Using the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia. 2(2): 115-118 [Indonesian]
Masrifah M, Rahman N and Abram PH. 2017. Test of antioxidant activity of leaf and skin extract of water gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.). Jurnal Akademika Kimia, 6(2): 98-106. [Indonesian]
Maududi AA. 2009. Production of Antioxidants from Simpur Leaves (Dillenia indica) Using High Pressure Extraction Method with Solvent Circulation. (Thesis). Fakultas Teknik. Universitas Indonesia [Indonesian]
Mayasari D, Jayuska A and Wibowo MA. 2013. Effect of time variation and sample size on the components of the essential oil of kaffir lime leaves (Citrus hystrix DC.). Jurnal Kimia Khatulistiwa, 2(2):74-77 [Indonesian]
Masyudi, Hanafiah M, Rinidar, Usman S and Marlina.2022. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds of Blumea balsamifera leaf extracts from South Aceh, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23(3): 1344-1352
Molyneux P. 2004. The Use of The Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicry-hydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 26 (2): 211-21
Mukhlisi, Atmoko T and Priyono. 2018. Flora Habitat Proboscis Monkey Wetland Suwi, East Kalimantan. Forda Press. Bogor [Indonesian]
Mustari AH. 2019. Flora and Fauna of Leuweung Sancang Nature Reserve. IPB Press. Bogor [Indonesian]
Neldawati, N. (2013). Analysis of absorbance values in determining flavonoid levels for various types of medicinal plant leaves. Pillar of Physics, 2(1): 76-83
Nkop EJ, and Zudonu OC. 2020. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Leave and Stem Bark of Dillenia indica Linn .The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal 7(1):1-4
Pabita OT, Erwin, and Kusuma IW. 2019. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extract of Mentawa Trunk Wood (Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq.). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kimia. 2 (4): 57-61 [Indonesian]
Panjaitan PMA, Andi H, and Alimuddin. 2014. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity Test of Methanol Extract of Ceria Bark (Baccaurea hookeri) Mangasih.. Jurnal Kajian Komunikasi. 3 (1): 17-21 [Indonesian]
Pasaribu G and Waluyo TK . 2019. Ethnomedicine, phytochemical, and toxicity activity of several alleged medicinal plants from Sebangau National Park, Central Borneo. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 415:1-8 [Indonesian]
Poedjiadi A and Supriyanti. 1994. Basics of Biochemistry: Indonesia University Press. Jakarta [Indonesian]
Pradityo T, Santoso N, and Zuhud AM. 2016. Ethnobotany in the Iban Dayak Tembawang Gardens, Sungai Mawang Village, West Kalimantan. Jurnal Media Konservasi. 21 (2): 183-198 [Indonesian]
Prananda Y. 2019. Phytochemical Screening of Simpur Leaf (Dillenia indica L.) Ethanol Extract as an Initial Stage in Toxicity Testing. Jurnal Mahasiswa Farmasi Fakultas Kedokteran UNTAN, 3(1): 17-21 [Indonesian]
Putra AYT. 2018. Phytochemical Screening Ethyl Acetate Extract of Simpor Leaves (Dillenia suffruticosa. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan. 4 (1): 36-40 [Indonesian]
Rahmawati Z. 2021. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity test of the methanol extract of the leaves of lai (Durio kutejensis (Hassk) Becc (Thesis). Biologi. Universitas Mulawarman. [Indonesian]
Robinson T. 1995. High Plant Organic Content VI Edition.. ITB Press Bandung [Indonesian]
Sa'adah H, and Nurhasnawati, H. (2017). Comparison of ethanol and water solvents in the manufacture of tiwai onion bulb extract (Eleutherine americana Merr) using the maceration method. Jurnal ilmiah manuntung, 1(2), 149-153. [Indonesian]
Sabandar CW, Jalil J, Ahmat N, Aladdin NA, and Kamaruddin HS. 2020. Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase Bark Songi (Dillenia serrata Thunb.). Jurnal Farmasi Galenika. 6 (1): 151-159 [Indonesian]
Salimi YK, Bialangi N, and Saiman S. 2017. Isolation and Identification of Secondary Metabolic Compounds Methanol Extract of Moringa Leaf (Moringa oleifera Lamk). Akademika. 6 (2): 132-143 [Indonesian]
Sari AK, and Ayuchecaria N. 2017. Determination of total phenolic content and total flavonoid extract of black rice (Oryza sativa L.) from South Kalimantan. Jurnal Ilmiah Ibnu Sina, 2(2): 327-335. [Indonesian]
Setiawan H. 2013. Ecological Status of Mangrove Forests at Various Thickness Levels. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan Wallaceae. 2 (2): 104-120. [Indonesian]
Setyowati FM. 2005. Ethnobotany of the Ngaju Dayak Community in the Timpah Region of Central Kalimantan. Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan. 6 (3): 502-510 [Indonesian]
Shipra P, Pandey VN, and Kalawati S. 2018. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Pharmacognostical Studies of Different Parts of Dillenia Indica Linn. Int J. Scientific and Research Publications 8(6):175-185.
Sujana PKW, Wijayanti N. 2022. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of Syzygium zollingerianum leaves extract. Biodiversitas 23(2): 916-921
Tengo NA, Bialangi N, and Suleman, N. 2013. Isolation and Characterization of Alkaloid Compounds from Avocado Leaves (Persea americana Mill). Jurnal Sainstek, 7(1):200-206 [Indonesian]
Utami MR and Anjani RD. 2020. Phytochemical and Toxicity Analysis of Ethanol Extract of Leaves, Bark, Roots of Simpur Plant (Dillenia indica L.) Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) Method. Jurnal Media Farmasi. 16 (2): 230-237 [Indonesian]
Yoga IKW. 2015. Determination of the optimum concentration of antioxidant standard curve; gallic acid, ascorbic acid and trolox against free radicals DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) 0.1 mM.. Proceedings Seminar Nasional FMIPA UNDIKSHA V Tahun 2015:316-321[Indonesi

Most read articles by the same author(s)