Mangrove species of Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia




Abstract. Djamaluddin R, Djabar B. 2022. Mangrove species of Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 2845-2852. A study on mangrove species in Mantehage Island, Bunaken National Park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, is important due to the large extent of mangrove forest, geographical position, and geomorphological characteristics of the island. Many mangrove species are expected to occur on this island. This study was conducted to explore the biological diversity of mangrove species and to evaluate the biogeography and conservation status of certain species occurring on this island. Extensive surveys were conducted throughout the island on the areas covered with mangroves, with a total of 58 locations surveyed using spot check and quadrat-transect methods, and species identification was based on morphological characteristics. Results showed that in Mantehage Island there were 20 species of true mangrove belonging to 13 genera and 11 families, including Acanthus ilicifolius L., Acrostichum spesiosum Willd., Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk., Bruguiera parvilora Weight & Arnold ex Griffith, Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob, Excoecaria agallocha L., Heritiera littoralis Dryand, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb., Rhizophora apiculata Bl., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk., Rhizophora stylosa Griff., Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn., Sonneratia alba J. Smith, Sonneratia ovata Blake., Xylocarpus granatum K?enig. Three rare species in the mangrove of Bunaken National Park, Camptostemon philippinense (Vidal) Becc., Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Bl. and Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. were also recorded. The presence of C. philippinense could explain its distribution limit on the northern coast of North Sulawesi. Indication of putative hybrids in the genera of Rhizophora was found, but this needs further investigation. Two species of conservation concern, C. philippinense and S. ovata, are categorized as endangered and near-threatened species, respectively.


Anonim. 1994. Bunaken National Park: data, projection, and analysis (Book II). Regional Office of the Ministry of Forestry of North Sulawesi, Sub-Center for Natural Resources Conservation. Manado. (Indonesian)
Blasco F. 1984. Taxonomic considerations of the mangrove species. In Snedaker SC, Snedaker JG (eds) The Mangrove Ecosystem: Research Methods, pp. 81–90. UNESCO.
Budiman A, Riswan S, Kartawinata K, Prawiroatmodjo S. 1987. The mangrove ecosystem in Indonesia. In Field CD, Dartnall AJ (eds) Mangrove ecosystem of Asia and the Pacific: status, exploitation and management, pp. 31–39. Australian Institute of Marine Science.
Chapman V. 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer.
Claridge D, Burnett J. 1993. Mangroves in focus. Marino Litographics, Queensland.
Damanik R, Djamaluddin R. 2012. Tomini bay mangrove atlas. Sustainable Coastal Livelihoods and Management Program, CIDA, IUCN, Lestari Canada. (Indonesian)
Davie J, Djamaluddin R. 1996. The Sustainable Use and Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystems of Bunaken National Park. Associates in Rural Development for Office of Agro-Enterprise and Environment, USAID.
Djamaluddin R. 2015. The mangrove flora in Tomini Bay. The 5th International Conference on Plant Diversity (ICPD 2015) Plant Diversity: A Global Challenge.
Djamaluddin R. 2018a. Mangrove: biology, ecology, rehabilitation, and conservation. Unsrat Press. (Indonesian)
Djamaluddin R. 2018b. The mangrove flora and their physical habitat characteristics in bunaken national park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 19(4):1303–1312.
Djamaluddin R, Kaumbo MA, Djabar B. 2019. Present condition of mangrove environment and community structure in Tomini Gulf, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 11(3):601–614.
Djamaluddin R, Lamb D, Duke N, Moll E, Davie J. 2004. The dynamics of mangrove forests in relation to die-back and human use in Bunaken National park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (Dissertation). University of Queensland, Australia.
Duke NC. 1992. Mangrove floristics and biogeography.
Duke NC. 2006. Indo-West Pacific stilt mangrove: Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, R. stylosa, R. X annamalai, R. X lamarckii. In Elevitch CR (ed) Traditional trees of Pacific islands: their culture, environment, and use, Issue April, pp. 641–660. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR).
Duke NC, Ball MC, Ellison JC. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7(1):27–47.
Duke NC, Mackenzie J, Wood A. 2012. A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, Issue 12.
Fernando ES, Pancho JV. 1980. Mangrove trees of the Philippines. Sylvatrop, 5(1):35–54.
Giesen W, Wulffraat S, Zieren M, Scholten L. 2006. Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia. FAO and Wetlands International.
Haining Q, Graham S, Gilbert M. 2007. Lythraceae. Flora of China, 13. PDF/PDF13/Sonneratia.pdf
Kodikara KAS, Jayatissa LP, Huxham M, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. 2018. The effects of salinity on growth and survival of mangrove seedlings changes with age. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 32(1):37–46.
Mabberley D, Pannell C, Sing A. 1995. Flora Malesiana: Series I. Spermatophyta, 12(1):ii + 407.
Macnae W. 1969. A General Account of the Fauna and Flora of Mangrove Swamps and Forests in the Indo-West-Pacific Region. Advances in Marine Biology, 6: 73–103, 104a, 104b, 105–270.
Maxwell GS. 2015. Gaps in mangrove science. ISME/GLOMIS Electronic Journal, 3(5):1–21.
Mukhlisi, Sidiyasa K. 2014. Vegetation structure and species composition in Mangrove Information Centre Berau, East Kalimantan. Forest Rehabilitation Journal, 2(1):25–37.
Ng WL, Teoh HW, Heng WX, Pung QE, Ng CY. 2020. Characterisation of the flowers of Indo-West Pacific Rhizophora mangroves in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal, 72(4):503-509
Ng WL, Chan HT, Szmidt AE. 2013. Molecular identification of natural mangrove hybrids of Rhizophora in Peninsular Malaysia. Tree Genetics and Genomes, 9(5):1151–1160.
Noor T, Batool N, Mazhar R, Ilyas N. 2015. Effects of siltation, temperature and salinity on mangrove plants. European Academic Research, 2(11):14172–14179.
Percival M, Womersley J. 1975. Floristics and ecology of the mangrove vegetation in Papua New Guinea. Botany Bulletin, 8.
Polidoro BA, Carpenter KE, Collins L, Duke NC, Ellison AM, Ellison JC, Farnsworth EJ, Fernando ES, Kathiresan K, Koedam NE, Livingstone SR, Miyagi T, Moore GE, Nam VN, Ong JE, Primavera JH, Salmo SG, Sanciangco JC, Sukardjo S, Yong JWH. 2010. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS ONE, 5(4).
Prawiroatmodjo S, Kartawinata K. 2014. Floristic diversity and structural characteristics of mangrove forest of Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia. Reinwardtia, 14(1): 171-180.
Ragavan P, Jayaraj RSC, Saxena A, Mohan PM, Ravichandran K. 2015. Taxonomical identity of Rhizophora × annamalayana Kathir and Rhizophora × lamarckii Montrouz (Rhizophoraceae) in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Taiwania, 60(4):183–193.
Reef R, Lovelock CE. 2015. Regulation of water balance in mangroves. Annals of Botany, 115(3):385–395.
Saenger P, Ragavan P, Sheue CR, López-Portillo J, Yong JWH, Mageswaran T. 2019. Mangrove biogeography of the Indo-Pacific. Springer Nature Switzerland.
Sanmartín I. 2012. Historical biogeography: evolution in time and space. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 5(4):555–568.
Spalding M, Blasco F, Field C. 1997. World mangrove atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Okinawa, Japan.
Spalding MD, Kainuma M, Collins L. 2010. World atlas of mangroves (1st ed.). Earthscan.
Srikanth S, Lum SKY, Chen Z. 2016. Mangrove root: adaptations and ecological importance. Trees - Structure and Function, 30(2):451–465.
Sunardi R. 1996. Coastal management in an enclosed sea environment: an Indonesian case in the preservation of coastal ecosystem. Indonesian Quarterly, 24(3):248–256.
Thom B. 1982. Mangrove ecology – a geomorphological perspective. In Clough BF (ed) Mangrove Ecosystem in Australia: Structure, Function and Management, pp. 3–17. Australian Institute of Marine Science in association with Australian National University Press.
Tomlinson P B. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Vannucci M. 1998. The mangrove ecosystem: an overview of present knowledge. Revista Brasileira De Biologia, 58:1–15.
Wahyuningsih EP, Suleman SM. 2012. Mangrove vegetation structure and composition in Lalombi Village Siuth Banawa Sub-regency Donggala Regency. Biocelebes, 6(2):84–100.(Indonesian)
Wang L, Mu M, Li X, Lin P, Wang W. 2011. Differentiation between true mangroves and mangrove associates based on leaf traits and salt contents. Journal of Plant Ecology, 4(4):292–301.