Geomorphological classification of benthic structures of Kaledupa Atoll Wakatobi National Park, Indonesia




Abstract. Setiawan A, Siregar VP, Susilo SB, Mardiastuti A, Agus SB. 2022. Geomorphological classification of benthic structures of Kaledupa Atoll Wakatobi National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 3784-3792. Geomorphological mapping is one solution to understanding the complexity of the seabed pattern. This research aims to map the benthic structure of Kaledupa Atoll using the Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System with the Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) extension. The data used is in situ bathymetry data using Mapsounder 585 and Sentinel 2A satellite image data downloaded for free. BTM is a technique for examining benthic habitat and shallow water geomorphology. BTM was used to analyze integrated depth data to determine the bathymetric position index (BPI), slope, and classification of reef geomorphological structures. Thirteen structural classes of habitat geomorphology resulting from this research are Flat plain with the largest area of ??17142.35 ha, and the class with the smallest area is Crevices class, with narrow gullies rock outcrops 1.64 ha. While the other classes in a row are Broad slope 9104.53 ha; Flat ridge tops, upper slopes 4262.67 ha; Current scoured depressions on a slope 3420.98 ha; Narrow depressions at the base of rock outcrops 2348.20 ha; Rock outcrop highs, narrow ridges 1792.45 ha; Local ridges, boulders, pinnacles on slopes 879.29 ha; Scarp, cliff or small local depressions on a slope 703.02 ha; Local ridges, boulders, pinnacles on broad flat 490.17 ha; Local depressions, current scoured on flat 416.39 ha; Local ridges, boulders, pinnacles on broad depressions 16.63 ha; and Steep slopes 2.88 ha.


Adji, T. N., & Sejati, S. P. 2014. Identification of groundwater potential zones within an area with various geomorphological units by using several field parameters and a GIS approach in Kulon Progo Regency, Java, Indonesia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 7(1). 161-172. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-012-0779-z
Agus, S. B., Siregar, V. P., Bengen, D. G., & Hanggono, A. 2012. Profil Batimetri Habitat Pemijahan Ikan Terumbu Hasil Integrasi Data Inderaja Satelit dan Akustik: Studi Kasus Perairan Sekitar Pulau Panggang, Kepulauan Seribu. Jurnal Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan. 3(1). 45-61. DOI: 10.24319/jtpk.3.45-61
Agus, S. B., Siregar, V. P., Susilo, S. B., Sangadji, M. S., Tasirileleu, G. F., & Budi, P. S. 2021. Mapping of shallow water bathymetry and reef geomorphology using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery in Genteng Besar and Genteng Kecil Island, Kepulauan Seribu. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 944, No. 1, p. 012048). IOP Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/944/1/012048
Armstrong, R. A., Singh, H., Torres, J., Nemeth, R. S., Can, A., Roman, C., ... & Garcia-Moliner, G. 2006. Characterizing the deep insular shelf coral reef habitat of the Hind Bank marine conservation district (US Virgin Islands) using the Seabed autonomous underwater vehicle. Continental Shelf Research. 26 (2). 194-205.
Azhar, A. 2018. Optimasi Pengelolaan Pulau Kaledupa Taman Nasional Wakatobi (TNW) Berdasarkan Karakteristik Biogeofisik. [Dissertation]. Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor. [Indonesian]
Azhar, A., Damar, A., Bengen, D. G., & Atmadipoera, A. S. 2019. Shallow water marine habitat mapping of Kaledupa Island using integrating tradisional ecological knowledge and multispectral image classification. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 241, No. 1, p. 012038). IOP Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/241/1/012038
Bongaerts, P., Ridgway, T., Sampayo, E. M., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2010. Assessing the ‘deep reef refugia’hypothesis: focus on Caribbean reefs. Coral reefs. 29 (2). 309-327. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-009-0581-x
Brown, G. 2012. Public participation GIS (PPGIS) for regional and environmental planning: Reflections on a decade of empirical research. Journal Of The Urban & Regional Information Systems Association. 24 (2).
Casal, G., Monteys, X., Hedley, J., Harris, P., Cahalane, C., & McCarthy, T. 2019. Assessment of empirical algorithms for bathymetry extraction using Sentinel-2 data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 40 (8). 2855-2879. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2018.1533660
Dartnell, P., & Gardner, J. V. 2004. Predicted seafloor facies of central Santa Monica Bay, California. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey. DOI: 10.3133/ofr20041081
de Oliveira, N., Bastos, A. C., da Silva Quaresma, V., & Vieira, F. V. 2020. The use of Benthic Terrain Modeler (BTM) in the characterization of continental shelf habitats. Geo-Marine Letters. 40 (6). 1087-1097. DOI: 10.1007/s00367-020-00642-y
Erdey-Heydorn, M. D. 2008. An ArcGIS seabed characterization toolbox developed for investigating benthic habitats. Marine Geodesy. 31 (4). 318-358. DOI: 10.1080/01490410802466819
Feldman, B., Shlesinger, T., & Loya, Y. 2018. Mesophotic coral-reef environments depress the reproduction of the coral Paramontastraea peresi in the Red Sea. Coral Reefs. 37 (1). 201-214. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-017-1648-8
Goes, E. R., Brown, C. J., & Araujo, T. C. 2019. Geomorphological classification of the benthic structures on a tropical continental shelf. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6. 47. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00047
Greene, H. G., Bizzarro, J. J., Tilden, J. E., Lopez, H. L., and Erdey, M. D. 2005. “The benefits and pitfalls of geographic information systems in marine benthic habitat mapping,” in Place Matters, eds D. J. Wright and A. J. Scholz (Portland, OR: State University Press), 34–46.
Hafizt, M., Adi, N. S., Wicaksono, P., Yuwono, D. M., Prayudha, B., & Suyarso, S. 2021. Change Detection of Benthic Habitat Communities using Landsat Imageries in Wakatobi Islands from 1990 to 2017. Indonesian Journal of Geography. DOI: 10.22146/ijg.50724
Harris, P., & Baker, E. (Eds.). 2011. Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/C2017-0-02139-0
Hughes, A. D., & Grottoli, A. G. 2013. Heterotrophic compensation: a possible mechanism for resilience of coral reefs to global warming or a sign of prolonged stress?. PLoS One. 8 (11). e81172. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081172
Jerosch, K., Kuhn, G., Krajnik, I., Scharf, F. K., & Dorschel, B. 2016. A geomorphological seabed classification for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Marine Geophysical Research. 37 (2). 127-141. DOI: 10.1007/s11001-015-9256-x
Kostylev, V. E., Courtney, R. C., Robert, G., & Todd, B. J. (2003). Stock evaluation of giant scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) using high-resolution acoustics for seabed mapping. Fisheries Research. 60 (2-3). 479-492. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00100-5
Koswara, A., & Sukarna, D. 1994. Geology of the Tukang Besi Sheet, Sulawesi. Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, Indonesia (14 pp. and map).
Lavagnino, A. C., Bastos, A. C., Amado Filho, G. M., De Moraes, F. C., Araujo, L. S., & de Moura, R. L. (2020). Geomorphometric seabed classification and potential megahabitat distribution in the Amazon continental margin. Frontiers in Marine Science. 7. 190. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00190
Lecours, V., Devillers, R., Schneider, D. C., Lucieer, V. L., Brown, C. J., & Edinger, E. N. 2015. Spatial scale and geographic context in benthic habitat mapping: review and future directions. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 535. 259-284. DOI: 10.3354/meps11378
Lecours, V., Brown, C. J., Devillers, R., Lucieer, V. L., & Edinger, E. N. 2016. Comparing selections of environmental variables for ecological studies: A focus on terrain attributes. PLoS One. 11 (12). e0167128. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167128
Lesser, M. P., Slattery, M., & Leichter, J. J. 2009. Ecology of mesophotic coral reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 375 (1-2). 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.05.009
Lundblad, E. R., Wright, D. J., Miller, J., Larkin, E. M., Rinehart, R., Naar, D. F., ... & Battista, T. 2006. A benthic terrain classification scheme for American Samoa. Marine Geodesy. 29 (2). 89-111. DOI: 10.1080/01490410600738021
Lyzenga, D. R. 1985. Shallow-water bathymetry using combined lidar and passive multispectral scanner data. International journal of remote sensing. 6 (1). 115-125. DOI: 10.1080/01431168508948428
Lyzenga, D. R. 1978. Passive remote sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features. Applied optics. 17 (3). 379-383. DOI: 10.1364/AO.17.000379
Lyzenga, D. R., Malinas, N. P., & Tanis, F. J. 2006. Multispectral bathymetry using a simple physically based algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 44 (8). 2251-2259. DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2006.872909
McArthur, M. A., Brooke, B. P., Przeslawski, R., Ryan, D. A., Lucieer, V. L., Nichol, S., ... & Radke, L. C. 2010. On the use of abiotic surrogates to describe marine benthic biodiversity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 88(1). 21-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2010.03.003
Menandro, P. S., Bastos, A. C., Boni, G., Ferreira, L. C., Vieira, F. V., Lavagnino, A. C., ... & Diesing, M. 2020. Reef mapping using different seabed automatic classification tools. Geosciences. 10. (2). 72. DOI: 10.3390/geosciences10020072
Mobley, C. D. 1994. Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters' Academic Press. San Diego, California.
Parnum, I., Siwabessy, J., Gavrilov, A., & Parsons, M. 2009. A comparison of single beam and multibeam sonar systems in seafloor habitat mapping. In Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. and Exhibition of Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies & Results, Nafplion, Greece (pp. 155-162).
Pittman, S. J., Christensen, J. D., Caldow, C., Menza, C., & Monaco, M. E. 2007. Predictive mapping of fish species richness across shallow-water seascapes in the Caribbean. ecological modelling. 204 (1-2). 9-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.12.017
Post, A. L. 2008. The application of physical surrogates to predict the distribution of marine benthic organisms. Ocean & Coastal Management. 51 (2). 161-179. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2007.04.008
Riegl, B., & Piller, W. E. 2003. Possible refugia for reefs in times of environmental stress. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 92 (4). 520-531. DOI: 10.1007/s00531-003-0328-9
Rinne, H., Kaskela, A., Downie, A. L., Tolvanen, H., von Numers, M., & Mattila, J. 2014. Predicting the occurrence of rocky reefs in a heterogeneous archipelago area with limited data. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 138. 90-100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2013.12.025
Schuyler, Q., Dustan, P., & Dobson, E. 2005. Remote sensing of coral reef community change on a remote coral atoll: Karang Kapota, Indonesia.
Shen, J. W., Johnson, M. E., Fu, F., Wang, Y., & Jin, Y. 2018. Seasonal wind patterns influence the configuration and geomorphology of insular reef systems: Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands, China. Geological Journal. 53 (2). 754-766. DOI: 10.1002/gj.2925
Solihuddin, T. (2017). Atoll Reef Geomorphology of Sagori Island, SE Sulawesi: A Reconnaissance Study. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience. 4 (3). 181-191. DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.181-191
Van Lancker, V., Moerkerke, G., Du Four, I., Verfaillie, E., Rabaut, M., & Degraer, S. 2012. Fine-scale geomorphological mapping of sandbank environments for the prediction of macrobenthic occurrences, Belgian part of the North Sea. In Seafloor geomorphology as benthic habitat (pp. 251-260). Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385140-6.00014-1
Verfaillie, E., Degraer, S., Schelfaut, K., Willems, W., & Van Lancker, V. 2009. A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 83 (2). 175-185. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.03.003
Walbridge, S., Slocum, N., Pobuda, M., & Wright, D. J. 2018. Unified geomorphological analysis workflows with Benthic Terrain Modeler. Geosciences. 8 (3). 94. DOI: 10.3390/geosciences8030094
Weiss A D 2001 Topographic position and landforms analysis [poster] Proceedings of The 21st Annual ESRI User Conference, San Diego, CA
Wright, D. J., Blongewicz, M. J., Halpin, P. N., & Breman, J. 2007. Arc Marine: GIS for a blue planet. ESRI, Inc..
Zawada, D. G., Piniak, G. A., & Hearn, C. J. (2010). Topographic complexity and roughness of a tropical benthic seascape. Geophysical research letters. 37 (14). DOI: 10.1029/2010gl043789

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>