Nusantara Bioscience <p>Nusantara Bioscience (Nusantara Biosci) encourages submission of manuscripts dealing with all aspects of biological sciences that emphasize issues germane to biological and nature conservation.</p> Society for Indonesian Biodiversity en-US Nusantara Bioscience 2087-3948 Analysis of the effect of methadone and temperature on the development rate of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A forensically important fly <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Keshavarzi</em><em> D</em><em>,</em><em> Rassi</em><em> Y</em><em>, </em><em>A</em><em>zizi</em> <em>K</em><em>, </em><em>O</em><em>shaghi</em> <em>MA</em><em>, Rafizadeh</em> <em>S</em><em>, Alimohammadi</em> <em>AM</em><em>,</em> <em>Namadi</em> <em>MS</em><em>, Parkhideh</em> <em>SZ</em><em>.</em> <em>2020. </em><em>Analysis of the effect of methadone and temperature on the development rate of </em>Calliphora vicina<em> (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A forensically important fly</em><em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience </em><em>12</em><em>: </em><em>87-91</em><em>.</em> &nbsp;The development rate/time of flies is a scientific method to estimate the minimum time elapsed after death. Several studies have shown that opioids and temperature affect maggot growth rates. However, there are few published data that investigate the effect of ante-mortem methadone use on larval length of <em>Calliphora vicina</em> (Robineau-Desvoidy). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of methadone and temperature on the development rate/time of this species. During this study, four rabbits were administered 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, and 10 mg/kg of methadone via gavage over a period of 14 days, and a five rabbit, which did not receive methadone, was used as a control. The rabbits' tissues were separated and exposed to maggots for rearing. Minimum developmental times of <em>C</em><em>.</em><em> vicina</em> life stages at six constant temperature regimes were provided. From hours 48 to 96, larvae feeding on tissues containing 10 mg/kg methadone developed more rapidly than those feeding on tissues containing 0.1, 0.50, and 1 mg/kg and also from the control. In the present study, development rate of <em>C. vicina</em> was linearly related to temperature (R2 = 0.96, p =0.02) between 16 and 32°C. The results revealed that the differences observed in the rates of development were sufficient to alter postmortem interval estimates based on larval development by up to 24 h.</p> Dawoud Kshvary Yavar Rassi Kourosh azizi MOHAMMAD ALI OSHAGHI SAYENA RAFIZADEH ALI MOHAMMAD ALIMOHAMMADI MARZIEA SHAHRIARI NAMADI SEYEDEH ZAHRA PARKHIDEH Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-08-18 2020-08-18 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120201 Short Communication: Lugol’s iodine test on Rafflesia patma–Tetrastigma leucostaphylum intersection tissue for preliminary starch visualization <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Wicaksono A, Mursidawati S</em><em>.</em> <em>2020. </em><em>Short Communication</em><em>: Lugol’s iodine test</em> <em>on </em>Rafflesia patma-Tetrastigma leucostaphylum <em>intersection tissue for preliminary starch visualization</em><em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience </em><em>12</em><em>: 91-96.</em> As holoparasitic plant, <em>Rafflesia </em>has no recognizable plastid genome, but it has plastid-like organelle. Despite the fact that it obtains nutrients from host plant, it is unknown if <em>Rafflesia </em>stores primary metabolites, such as carbohydrates, from its host. A study was performed to visualize the starch in <em>Rafflesia patma </em>Blume proximal tissue which was intersected to its host root, <em>Tetrastigma leucostaphylum </em>(Dennst.) Alston, using modified Sachs’ test with Lugol’s iodine. The result revealed the absence of blackening in the <em>R. patma </em>tissue caused by starch reaction with the iodine, but occurred in the root cortical tissue of <em>T. leucostaphylum</em>. The absence of starch in <em>R. patma </em>tissue indicated that possibly the plastid-like organ has no similar function to amyloplast, and starch is not used for storage in the flower. It is likely that <em>R. patma </em>relies completely on the host’s photosynthate to maintain the flower metabolism during anthesis period. However, detailed histochemical analysis for starch or carbohydrate is needed for confirmation whether the starch is existing even in small quantity, and molecular genetic observation on sucrose intake and flowering (anthesis) regulatory genes will also be required to confirm if <em>Rafflesia</em> takes the photosynthate directly from its host and possibility if <em>Rafflesia </em>coordinates the formation of flower bud and anthesis between the endophytic tissues to prevent overexploitation of nutrients from its host.</p> Adhityo Wicaksono Sofi Mursidawati Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120202 Melissopalynological analysis of honey produced by two species of stingless bees in Lombok Island, Indonesia <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Jayadi LZ, Susandarini R. </em><em>2020. Melissopalynological analysis </em><em>of honey produced by two species of stingless bees in Lombok Island, Indonesia</em><em>. Nusantara Bioscience 12: </em><em>9</em><em>7-108.</em> Honey is a natural product with a variety of benefits that commonly used as food sweeteners, health supplements, and traditional medicine. There has been no comprehensive publication regarding the diversity of pollen contained in honey produced by stingless bee <em>Tetragonula laeviceps</em> and <em>Heterotrogona itama</em> from Lombok. This study aimed to reveal the diversity of pollen content in honey through melissopalynological analysis of honey samples produced by two species of stingless bees <em>T. laeviceps</em> and <em>H. itama</em> in Lombok Island. This melissopalynological study was performed on honey samples obtained from nine villages from nine sub-districts representing the three districts on Lombok Island. Pollen extraction from honey was carried out using standard methods for melissopalynological analysis. The diversity of pollen recovered from honey varied from 15 to 41 pollen types. Total number of plant species whose pollen was recovered from honey samples was 127 which consisted of 61 families. The occurrence of predominant pollen type in particular unifloral honey samples indicated their botanical origin and presumed geographical origin of honey. Results of this study are useful in confirming botanical origin of honey and generating information on plants potential as food source for sustainable beekeeping in Lombok Island.</p> Lalu Zulkan Jayadi Ratna Susandarini Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120203 Short Communication: Stimulatory effect of Curcuma mangga on immune response against Staphylococcus aureus <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Yuandani, Nugraha SE, Laila L, Silaban SD, Ramadhani F. 2020. Short Communication: Stimulatory effect of Curcuma mangga </em><em>on immune response against Staphylococcus aureus.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience </em><em>12</em><em>: </em><em>109</em><em>-113</em><em>.</em> Recently, the ethanol extract of <em>Curcuma mangga</em> Val. rhizomes were found to have immunomodulatory activity by enhancing phagocytic ability. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of <em>C. mangga</em> rhizomes on antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal and doxorubicin-induced rats against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The extract was administered orally at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) to rats for 72 hours prior to sensitization of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, then continued for 14 days. Doxorubicin (4.67 mg/kg bw) was administered on days 8 and 11 to suppress the immune system. The antibody titer of normal and immune-suppressed rats after the treatment with <em>C. mangga</em> ethanolic extract was significantly higher than the rats with negative control (P&lt;0.05). Ethanol extract of <em>C. mangga </em>also demonstrated stimulation on delayed-type hypersensitivity response which was indicated by the increase of paw volume. The extract at dose of 400 mg/kg bw showed higher immunostimulatory activity than Levamisole as a positive control. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of <em>C. mangga</em> shows immunostimulatory activity, confirming its potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent.</p> Yuandani YUANDANI SONY EKA NUGRAHA LIA LAILA SETIA DAME SILABAN FADHILAH RAMADHANI Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120204 The application of NPK fertilizer boosts the nutrient uptake status and biomass production of Vernonia amygdalina <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Susanto D, Amirta R</em><em>. </em><em>2020. </em><em>The application of NPK fertilizer boosts the nutrient uptake status and biomass production of </em>Vernonia amygdalina<em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience </em><em>12</em><em>: </em><em>114</em><em>-119</em><em>.</em> <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> Delile is a medicinal plant introduced in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the nutrients absorption status and growth of <em>V. amygdalina</em> plants planted with a spacing of 1x1 m. The study used a complete randomized block design with NPK compound fertilizer treatment with five doses of fertilizer namely 0 g (without fertilizer) as a control, 40 g, 80 g, 120 g, and 140 g, three blocks each group consisted of 10 plants so that in total there were 150 plants. The results showed that NPK fertilizer increased growth and the biomass of <em>V. amygdalina</em>. The best growth of <em>V. amygdalina</em> plant was achieved in plants applied with 160g per plant NPK fertilizer in which the average of stem diameter and plant height were 6.69 ± 0.930 cm and 611.67 ± 12.71 cm, while the estimated biomass yield was 407 tons.ha-1. The most nutritional elements accumulated in plant biomass was the calcium (1279.49 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>), followed by magnesium (1167.0642 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>), phosphorus (536.64 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>), potassium (419.71 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>) and nitrogen (134.4 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>). We propose that these base nutrients are highly necessary for the cultivation of <em>V. amygdalina</em> as biomass feedstock or medicine plant.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Dwi Susanto RUDIANTO AMIRTA Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-09-09 2020-09-09 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120205 The use of betel (Piper betle) leaves for maintaining the health of women and children at various ethnic groups in Indonesia <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Widowati L, Handayani L, Mujahid R</em><em>. </em><em>2020. The use of betel </em>(Piper betle)<em> leaves for maintaining the health of women and children at various ethnic groups in Indonesia</em><em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience 12</em><em>: </em><em>120</em><em>-</em><em>12</em><em>6.</em> Betel is considered as one of the popular medicinal plants. Traditional uses of betel are mainly for maternal and child health, and frequently applied by the local communities. The study was carried out to determine the traditional use of betel. The method used a descriptive approach by analyzing the data collected from the RISTOJA Project in the year of 2012, 2015, and 2017. Data collection was conducted in 34 provinces of Indonesia through the survey of local knowledge of ethnomedicine and community-based medicinal plants. We collected the data using semi-structured interviews with traditional healers. The study revealed some medicinal related purposes, such as (i) Beauty care/cosmetic; (ii) Female genital organ; (iii) Fertility disorders; (iv) Pre and postnatal; (v) Stimulating breast milk, and (vi) Baby and children care. The RISTOJA project proved that the use of betel in health care for women and children is a lot so that it should be more developed. Previous studies also proved that betel is efficacious and safe for women and children. On the contrary, unhygienic way of services in traditional rituals and beliefs need to be supervised so that there is no harmful effect on the consumer. We propose establishing guidance to the traditional healers so that they can understand the safety and efficacy of traditional medicine and hygienic traditional health services.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lucie Widowati Lestari HAndayani Rohmat Mujahid Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120206 Growth and yield response of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L. var. Tuktuk) from different source materials applied with liquid biofertilizers <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Purba JH, Wahyuni PS, Zulkarnaen, Sasmita N, Yuniti IGD, Pandawani NP</em><em>. </em><em>2020. </em><em>Growth and yield response of shallot (</em>Allium ascalonicum<em> L. var. Tuktuk) from different source materials applied with liquid biofertilizers</em><em>.</em> <em>Biodiversitas 21</em><em>: </em><em>127</em><em>-133</em><em>.</em> This research was to examine growth and yield of shallots using different sources of propagation material, namely true shallot seed (TSS) and bulbs. Soil biological fertility, which was generally low, was improved by the addition of liquid organic fertilizer. The purpose of this study a) to determine the differences in the propagation of plants from seeds and bulbs of shallot Tuktuk varieties, and b) to determine the effect of liquid biofertilizer maxigrow and rhizobacteria. The study used a one-factor randomized design. The results showed that the growth and yield of shallots propagated with bulbs were better than the origin of the seeds. The treatment of the two types of liquid biofertilizer produces tangible growth and yield, but there was no significant difference between the two kinds of liquid organic fertilizer.</p> Jhon Hardy Purba PUTU SRI WAHYUNI ZULKARNAEN ZULKARNAEN NANANG SASMITA I GUSTI AYU DIAH YUNITI NI PUTU PANDAWANI Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120207 Organic fertilizer applications improve the growth of vegetable crops and chemical properties in the tailings deposition area at Timika, Papua, Indonesia <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Taberima S, Prabawardani S, Sarwom R, Lyons G</em><em>.</em> <em>2020. </em><em>Organic fertilizer applications improve the growth of vegetable crops and chemical properties in the tailings deposition area at Timika, Papua, Indonesia</em><em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience </em><em>12</em><em>: </em><em>134-142</em><em>.</em> This study aimed to observe growth responses of selected vegetable crops grown in the media of inactive tailings, the available nutrients (macro and microelements) in fresh tailings before and after planting, as well as the metal uptake by plant tissues. Research was conducted using Randomized Block Design with three treatments of organic matter (chicken manure, cow manure, and compost of <em>Salvinia natans</em>) to observe the response on growth and yield of kangkong, red spinach, tomato, and chili. Based on the geochemical data, the ratio of ANC/MPA ranged from 3.81 (0-20 cm) to 4.60 (20-40 cm). There was no acid potential, with ANC ratio &gt; 1.5 x MPA, and this result was supported by soil pH, which was alkaline in both depths of tailings media, ranging from 7.94 (0-20 cm) to 7.90 (20-40 cm). There was no significant effect on the chemical properties in the first period before and after planting for three months of planting period, except for the application with organic fertilizers. The best organic fertilizers applied in fresh tailings were chicken manure, followed by the compost of <em>S. natans</em> and cow manure. These organic fertilizers produced good growth and yield components of kangkong, red spinach, tomato, and chili. Meanwhile, the lowest growth and yield response of these crops was shown by control (without compost or manure). The level of metal uptake by all vegetables was low, suggesting that these vegetables are safe to be consumed.</p> SARTJI Taberima Saraswati Prabawardani ROBERTH SARWOM Graham Lyons Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120208 Human myiasis survey in Ilam Province, Southwest of Iran <p><strong>Abstract. </strong><em>Akbari M, Rafinejad J, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Aivazi AA, Biglarian A, Sheikhi S, Shavali Z, Akbarzadeh K</em><em>. </em><em>2020. </em><em>Human myiasis survey in Ilam Province, Southwest of Iran</em><em>.</em> <em>Nusantara Bioscience 12</em><em>: </em><em>143-147</em><em>.</em> Myiasis is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae, which at least for a period. Ilam Province of Iran is one of the most important animal husbandry areas, especially nomadic, in Iran. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of myiasis in shepherds in Ilam Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the shepherds in Ilam Province, western Iran. Out of the 11 counties in Ilam Province, 6 were randomly chosen from three different climates for this study. A questionnaire was used by a trained interviewer to obtain the information from subjects. The disease has been seen in spring, summer, and autumn seasons. About 94.1% of people have been infested at least once. Pharyngeal myiasis had the highest prevalence with 58.3%. Itchy, painful throat, sneeze, cough, and headache were common symptoms. About 85.1% of people described the symptoms of the disease as severe and very severe. About 75.4% stated that the duration of the disease was more than 5 days. According to the results of the study, it was found that the prevalence of myiasis among shepherds in the Ilam Province is high and it is necessary to take appropriate measures to control the disease and increase health literacy.</p> Morteza Akbari Javad Rafinejad AHMAD-ALI HANAFI-BOJD Ali Ashraf Aivazi Akbar Biglarian SORAYA SHEIKHI ZAHRA SHAVALI KAMRAN AKBARZADEH Copyright (c) 2020 Nusantara Bioscience 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 12 2 10.13057/nusbiosci/n120209