Review: The endless nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits of the Himalayan gold, Cordyceps; Current knowledge and prospective potentials




Abstract. Elkhateeb WA, Daba GM. 2020. Review: The endless nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits of the Himalayan gold, Cordyceps; Current knowledge and prospective potentials. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 18: 70-77. As a traditional medicine, Cordyceps has long been used in Asian nations for maintaining vivacity and boosting immunity. Numerous publications on various bioactivities of Cordyceps have been investigated in both in-vitro as well as in vivo studies. Nevertheless, the role of Cordyceps is still arguable whether it acts as food supplement for health benefits or a real healing drug that can be prescribed in medicine. The Cordyceps industry has developed greatly and offers thousands of products, commonly available in a global marketplace. In this review, focus will be on introducing the ecology of Cordyceps and their classification. Moreover, elucidation of the richness of extracts originated from this mushroom in nutritional components was presented, with description of the chemical compounds of Cordyceps and its well-known compounds such as cordycepin, and cordycepic acid. Furthermore, highlights on natural growth and artificial cultivation of famous Cordyceps species were presented. The health benefits and reported bioactivities of Cordyceps species as promising antimicrobial, anticancer, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, organ protective agent, and enhancer for organ function were presented.


Arora RK, Singh N, Singh RP. 2013. Characterization of an entomophagous medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. of Uttarakhand, India. The Bioscan 8: 195-200.
Arora RK, Singh RP. 2009. Effect of nutritional sources on mycelial growth of Caterpillar mushroom Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 39: 114-117.
Boesi A, Francesca C. 2009. "Cordyceps sinensis medicinal fungus: traditional use among tibetan people, harvesting techniques, and modern uses. Herbal Gram 83: 52-61.
Buenz EJ, Bauer BA, Osmundson TW, Motleym TJ. 2005. The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on apoptotic homeostasis, J. Ethnopharmacol. 96(1-2): 19-29.
Calam CT. 1971. The evaluation of mycelial growth. In: Norris J.R. and Ribbons D.W. (eds). Methods in Microbiology. Academic press, New York 1: 567- 591.
Cao L, Ye Y, Han RF. 2015. Fruiting body production of the medicinal Chinese caterpillar mushroom Ophiocordyceps sinensis in artificial medium. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 17: 1107-12.
Chen DG. 1995. Effects of Jinshuibao capsule on the quality of life of patients with heart failure. J. Admin. Tradit. Chin. Med. 5: 40–43.
Chen PX, Wang S, Nie S, Marcone M. 2013. Properties of Cordyceps sinensis: A review. Journal of Functional Foods 5(2): 550-569.?
Chen S, Yin D, Li L, Zha X, Shuen J, Zhama C. 2000. Resources and distribution of Cordyceps sinensis in Naqu Tibet. Zhong Yao Cai 23: 673–675.
Chen SZ, Wu PJ. 1990. A brief introduction to bottle culture technique of Cordyceps militaris. Edible Fungi 4: 31.
Chen YS, Liu BL, Chang YN. 2011. Effects of light and heavy metals on Cordyceps militaris fruit body growth in rice grain based cultivation. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 28: 875–879.
Das SK, Masuda M, Sakurai A. 2010. Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: Current state and prospects. Fitoterapia 81: 961–968.
Devkota S Yarsagumba 2006. [Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.]: Traditional utilization in Dolpa District, Western Nepal. Our Nature 4: 48-52.
Dong C, Yang T, Lian T. 2014. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes). International journal of medicinal mushrooms 16(5).?
Dong JZ, Lei C, Ai XR. 2012. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris Link and analysis on its main active components. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnology 166: 1215–1224.
Du AL, Zhang X, Zhang HZ. 2010. A new high cordycepin Cordyceps militaris cultivar ‘Haizhou 1’. Acta Hortic Sin. 37: 1373–1374.
Dworecka-Kaszak B. 2014. Cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors. Annals of parasitology 60(3).
El-Hagrassi A, Daba G, Elkhateeb W, Ahmed E, Negm El-Dein A, Fayad W, Shaheen M, Shehata R, El-Manawaty M, Wen TC. 2020. In vitro bioactive potential and chemical analysis of the n-hexane extract of the medicinal mushroom, Cordyceps militaris. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 16(1): 40-48.
Elkhateeb WA, Daba, GM, Thomas PW, Wen TC. 2019. Medicinal mushrooms as a new source of natural therapeutic bioactive compounds. Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 18(2): 88-101.?
Ferreira I, Vaz J, Vasconcelos M, Martins A. 2010. Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents) 10(5): 424-436.?
Gao SY, Wang FZ. 2008. Research of commercialized cultivation technology on Cordyceps militaris. North Horti. 9: 212–215.
Gao X, Wu W, Qian G. 2000. Study on influences of abiotic factors on fruit body differentiation of Cordyceps militaris. Acta Agric Shanghai 16: 93–98.
Glazer RI, Kuo JF 1977. Inhibitory effects of cordycepin on cyclic nucleotide-dependent and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinases. Biochemical Pharmacology, 26(14), pp.1287-1290.
Gong CL, Pan ZH, Zheng XJ. 2006. Antioxidation of cultured Cordyceps militaris growing on silkworm pupa. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Silk handcrafts cottage industries and silk enterprises development in Africa, Europe, Central Asia and the Near East, & Second Executive Meeting of Black, Caspian seas and Central Asia Silk Association (BACSA), Bursa, Turkey 615?620.
Guan Y, Hu G, Hou M, Jiang H, Wang X, Zhang C. 1992. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on lymphocyte subsets in chronic renal failure. Chinese Journal of Integrated Medicine 323: 338-339.
Guo TF, Guo TY. 2000. Study on pharmacological action and clinical application of Cordyceps sinensis. J Jindongnan Teachers Coll 21: 70–73.
Halpern Georges 2007. Healing mushrooms. Square One Publishers, Inc. 2007.
Holliday J, Cleaver M. 2008. Medicinal value of the caterpillar fungi species of the genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A Review. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 10: 219–234.
Hong IP, Pil-Don K, Ki-Young K, Sung-Hee N, Man-Young L, Yong-Soo C, Kwang-Gill L, Richard A. 2010. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris. Mycobiology 38: 128-132.
Huang L, Li QZ, Chen YY. 2009. Determination and analysis of cordycepin and adenosine in the products of Cordyceps spp. African Journal Microbiology. Res. 3: 957–961.
Huang SJ, Tsai SY, Lee YL. 2006. Nonvolatile taste components of fruiting bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris. Food Sci Technol. 39: 577–583.
Ji DB, Ye J, Li CL, Wang YH, Zhao J, Cai SQ. 2009. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytotherapy Research 23(1): 116-122)
Jin LY, Du ST, Ma L. 2009. Optimization on mathematical model of basic medium of Cordyceps militaris cultivation. J Northwest A F Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 37: 175–179.
Jin ML, Park SY, Kim YH, Park G, Son HJ, Lee SJ. 2011. Suppression of ?-MSH and IBMX-induced melanogenesis by cordycepin via inhibition of CREB and MITF, and activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK-dependent mechanisms. International journal of molecular medicine 29(1): 119-124.
Kepler RM, Sung GH, Harada Y, Tanaka K, Tanaka E, Hosoya T, Bischoff JF, Spatafora JW. 2012. Host jumping onto close relatives and across kingdoms by Tyrannicordyceps (Clavicipitaceae) gen. nov. and Ustilaginoidea (Clavicipitaceae). Am J. Bot. 99: 1–10.
Kiho T. 1996. Polysaccharides in fungi, hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose metabolism in mouse liver. Biol Pharm Bull. 19: 294–296.
Kim DJ, Kang YH, Kim KK, Kim TW, Park JB, Choe M. 2017. Increased glucose metabolism and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in Cordyceps militaris water extract-treated HepG2 cells. Nutrition research and practice 11(3): 180-189.?
Kim HG, Shrestha B, Lim SY, Yoon DH, Chang WC, Shin D, Han SK, Park SM, Park JH, Park HI, Sung JM, Jang Y, Chung N, Hwang KC, Kim TW. 2006. Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-?B through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. European journal of pharmacology 545(2-3): 192-199.?
Koh JH. 2003. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 26: 84–87.
Leatherdale D. 1970. The arthropod hosts of entomogenous fungi in Britain. Entomophaga 15: 419–435.
Lin WH, Tsai MT, Chen YS, Hou RCW, Hung HF, Li CH, Jeng KC. 2007. Improvement of sperm production in subfertile boars by Cordyceps militaris supplement. The American journal of Chinese medicine 35(04): 631-641.
Liu J, Yang S, Yang X, Chen Z, Li J. 1997. Anticarcinogenic effect and hormonal effect of Cordyceps militaris Link. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih (Chinese Journal); 22: 111-113.
Liu X, Huang K, Zhou J. (2014). Composition and antitumor activity of the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. J. Food Nutr. Res. 2: 74-79.?
Liu Y, Wang J, Wang W, Zhang H, Zhang X, Han C. 2015. The chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2015, Article ID 575063, 12 pages.
Lo HC, Hsieh C, Lin FY, Hsu TH. 2013. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in DongChongXiaCao (???? D?ng Chóng Xià C?o) and Related Bioactive Ingredients. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine 3(1): 16-32.
Ma T, Feng Y and Wu XP 2007. Primary investigation of a host insect of Cordyceps militaris and analysis of its main ingredients. Forest Res. 20: 63–67.
Mao XB, Eksriwong T, Chauvatcharin S, Zhong J. 2005. Optimization of carbon source and C:N ratio for cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Process Biochem. 40: 1667- 1672.
Masuda M, Urabe E, Honda H, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M. 2007. Enhanced production of cordycepin by surface culture using the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 40: 1199- 1205.
Mishra R, Yogesh U. 2011. Cordyceps sinensis: The Chinese Rasayan- Current Research Scenario, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2(4): 1503- 1519.
Mizuno T. 1999. Medicinal effects and utilization of Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes) and Isaria Fr. (Mitosporic fungi) Chinese caterpillar fungi, ‘‘Tochukaso’’ (review). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 1: 251–262.
Mueller WE, Weiler BE, Charubala R, Pfleiderer W, Leserman L, Sobol RW, Suhadolnik RJ, Schroeder HC. 1991. Cordycepin analogs of 2', 5'-oligoadenylate inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection via inhibition of reverse transcriptase. Biochemistry 30: 2027-2033.
Nakamura K, Konoha K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Kazumasa S, Kunitomo M. 2003. Combined effects of Cordyceps sinensis and methotrexate on hematogenic lung metastasis in mice. Receptors Channels 9: 329–334.
Nakav S, Chaimovitz C, Sufaro Y, Lewis EC, Shaked G, Czeiger D, Zlotnik M, Douvdenvani A. 2008. “Anti-inflammatory preconditioning by agonists of adenosine A1 receptor,” Plos ONE, vol. 3, no. 5, Article ID e2107.
Ng TB, Wang HX. 2005. Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 57(12): 1509-1519.?
Ohta Y, Lee JB, Hayashi K, Fujita A, Park DK, Hayashi T. 2007. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(25): 10194-10199.?
Park C. 2005. Growth inhibition of U937 leukemia cells by aqueous extract of Cordyceps militaris through induction of apoptosis. Oncol. Rep. 13: 1211–1216.
Park SY, Jung SJ, Ha KC, Sin HS, Jang SH, Chae HJ, Chae SW. 2015. Anti-inflammatory effects of Cordyceps mycelium (Paecilomyces hepiali, CBG-CS-2) in Raw264. 7 murine macrophages. Oriental pharmacy and experimental medicine 15(1): 7-12.?
Park, J, Lee Y, Baek, T, Yoon, N, Kim D, Aravinthan T, Hong A, HoonKim GJ. 2017. Anticancer Efficacy of Cordyceps militaris Ethanol Extract in a Xenografted Leukemia Model, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2017, Article ID 8474703, 7 pages.
Paterson RR. 2008. Cordyceps–A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?. Phytochemistry 69(7): 1469-1495.?
Pelleg A and Porter R. 1990. The pharmacology of adenosine. Pharmacotherapy 10: 157–174.
Pu ZL, Li ZZ. 1996. Insect mycology. Anhui Science and Technology Press, Hefei, 108.?
Reis FS, Barros L, Calhelha RC, ?iri? A, Van Griensven LJ, Sokovi? M, Ferreira IC. 2013. The methanolic extract of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antihuman tumor cell lines properties. Food and chemical toxicology 62: 91-98.?
Ren SY, Yao YJ. 2013. Evaluation of nutritional and physical stress conditions during vegetative growth on conidial production and germination in Ophiocordyceps sinensis. FEMS microbiology letters 346(1): 29-35.
Ruhul AS, Nadia A, Mousumi T, Asaduzzaman KM. 2008. Study of mycelial growth of Cordyceps sinensis in different media, at different pH level and temperature. Bangladesh J. Mushroom 2: 43-48.
Ryu, E., Son, M., Lee, M., Lee, K., Cho, J.Y., Cho, S., Lee, S.K., Lee, Y.M., Cho, H., Sung, G.H. and Kang, H., 2014. Cordycepin is a novel chemical suppressor of Epstein-Barr virus replication. Oncoscience 1(12): p.866.
Santhosh KT, Sujathan K, Biba V. 2014. Naturally occurring entamogenous fungi having anti-cancerous properties. Proceedings of the 25th Swadeshi Science Congress Kerala 206: 97.
Seema S, Subir R, Prem SN, Mohammed A. 2012. Optimization of nutritional necessities for in vitro culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Int. J. of Sci. and Res. 3: 1523-1528.
Shin KH, Lim SS, Lee S, Lee YS, Jung SH, Cho SY. 2003. Anti-tumour and immunostimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp. Phytother. Res. 17: 830-833.
Shrestha B, Han SK, Lee WH. 2005. Distribution and in vitro fruiting of Cordyceps militaris in Korea. Mycobiology 33: 178–181.
Shrestha B, Park YJ, Han SK. 2004. Instability in in vitro fruiting of Cordyceps militaris. J. Mushroom Sci. Prod. 2: 140–144.
Shrestha B, Sang KH, Sung JM, Sung GH. 2012. Fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris from multi-ascospore isolates and their single ascospore progeny strains. Mycobiology 40: 100-106.
Shrestha B, Sung J. 2005. Notes on Cordyceps species collected from central region of Nepal. Mycobiology 33: 235–239.
Singh RP, Pachauri V, Verma RC, Mishra KK. 2008. Caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis) - A Review. J.Eco-friendly Agric. 3: 1-15.
Smiderle FR, Baggio CH, Borato DG, Santana-Filho AP, Sassaki GL, Iacomini M, Van Griensven LJ. 2014. Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1? 3)-?-D-glucan. PLoS One 9(10): e110266.?
Stone R. 2008. Last stand for the body snatcher of the Himalayas? Science 322: 1182.
Sun JD, Xiong ST; Wang P. 2009. Study on biological and cultivated characters of Cordyceps militaris SN3. J Fungal Res. 7 (324): 148–152.
Sung GH, Hywel-Jones NL, Sung JM, Luangsa-ard JJ, Shrestha B, Spatafora JW. 2007. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi. Stud Mycol. 57: 5–69.
Sung JM, Choi YS, Lee HK. 1999. Production of fruiting body using cultures of entomopathogenic fungal species. Korean J. Mycol. 27: 15–19.
Sung JM, Park YJ, Lee JO. 2006. Effect of preservation periods and subcultures on fruiting body formation of Cordyceps militaris in vitro. Mycobiology 34: 196–199.
Tsai YJ, Lin LC; Tsai TH. 2010. Pharmacokinetics of adenosine and cordycepin, a bioactive constituent of Cordyceps sinensis in rat. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 58(8): 4638-4643.?
Wang M, Meng XY, Le Yang R, Qin T, Wang XY, Zhang KY, Fei C, Li Y, Hu Y, Xue F. 2012. Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides can enhance the immunity and antioxidation activity in immunosuppressed mice. Carbohydrate polymers 89(2): 461-466.?
Wang R, Xu Y, Ji P, Wang X and Holliday J. 2001. Clinical trial of a mixture of six medicinal mushroom extracts; Available: linical_trials.html.
Wang SM, Lee LJ, Lin WW, Chang CM. 1998. Effects of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis and capsular morphology of lipid droplets in cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Journal of Cell Biochemistry 69: 483-489.
Wang SY. Shiao MS. 2000. Pharmacological functions of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis and related species. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 8: 84-88.
Wang XL, Yao YJ. (2011). Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: A review. Zookeys 127: 43–59.
Wei Q, Huang M. 2009. Effects of nutrient ingredient in culture medium on the growth of Cordyceps militaris. Beijing Agric. 27: 36–38.
Wen TC, Kang JC, Li GR. 2008. Effects of different solid culture condition on fruit body and cordycepin output of Cordyceps militaris. Guizhou Agric. Sci. 36: 92– 94.
Wen TC, Zha LS, Kang JC, Hyde KD. 2017. Problems and prospects of research and development of Cordyceps militaris. Mycosystema 36: 14–27.
Won SY, Park EH. 2005. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. Journal of ethnopharmacology 96(3): 555-561.?
Wong YY, Moon A, Duffin R, Barthet-Barateig A, Meijer HA, Clemens MJ, De Moor CH. 2010. Cordycepin inhibits protein synthesis and cell adhesion through effects on signal transduction. J. Biol. Chem. 285: 2610–2621.
Wu JY, Leung HP, Wang WQ, Xu C. 2014. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and anti-fatigue activities of a Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis strain Cs-HK1 (Ascomycetes). International journal of medicinal mushrooms 16(2).?
Xiao ZH, Li ZX, Li JZ. 2010. Influence of additive on growth and differentiation of Cordyceps militaris (L.) fruit body. Food Ferment Technol. 46: 60–64.
Xiaoli L, Kaihong H, Jianzhong Z. 2014. Composition and antitumor activity of the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris.” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 2: 74-79.
Xie CY, Gu ZX, Fan GJ. 2009. Production of cordycepin and mycelia by submerged fermentation of Cordyceps militaris in mixture natural culture. Apply Biochem. Biotechnology 158: 483–492.
Xiong CH, Xia YL, Zheng P. 2010. Developmental stage-specific gene expression profiling for a medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. Mycology 1: 25– 66.
Xu CD. 2006. Advances of researches on Cordyceps sinensis. J. Fungal Res. 4: 60–64.
Xu F, Huang JB, Jiang L, Xu J, Mi J. 1995. Amelioration of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by Cordyceps sinensis in kidney-transplanted recipients. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10(1): 142-143.?
Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. 2000. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 14(8): 647-649.?
Yang ML, Kuo PC, Hwang TL, Wu TS. 2011. Anti-inflammatory principles from Cordyceps sinensis. Journal of Natural Products 74(9): 1996-2000.?
Yin H, Qin S. 2009. Effects of cultivation conditions on cell growth of inoculums of Cordyceps sinensis. Modern Food Science and Technology 25(2): 188-190.
Yoshikawa N. 2004. Antitumor activity of Cordycepin in mice. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 31: S51–S53. 94.
Yoshikawa N. 2007. Cordycepin and Cordyceps sinensis reduce the growth of human promyelocytic leukaemia cells through the Wnt signaling pathway. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 34: S61–S63.
Yu R, Yang W, Song L, Yan C, Zhang Z, Zhao Y. 2007. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris. Carbohydr. Polym. 70: 430–436.
Yue DC, Yang YP, Wang SF. 1982. Preliminary study on stroma formation of Cordyceps militaris strain. J. Chin Med. Mater. 5:7-10.
Yue K, Ye M, Zhou Z. 2013. The artificial cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A review. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms; 15:425–434.
Zhang CK, Yuan SR. 1997. Recent advance in studies on immune pharmacological activities of Cordyceps sinensis and its submerge-cultured mycelia. J. Capital University Med. Sci. 18: 37–38.
Zhang XK, Liu WX. 1997. Experimental studies on planting Cordyceps militaris (L. ex Fr.) Link with different culture materials. Edible Fungi China 16: 21–22.
Zhang YJ, Li E, Wang CS. 2012. Ophiocordyceps sinensis, the flagship fungus of China: Terminology, life strategy and ecology. Mycology 3: 2–10.
Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, Zhang Y, Yu H, Cooper R. 2002. Cordyceps Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 8: 403-405.
Zhou JS, Halpern G, Jones K. 1998. The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese Herbal Medicine: Cordyceps sinensis. J Alternat Complement Med. 4: 429–457.
Zhou L. 1990. Short term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Berk) Sacc. Mycelia in Chronic Hepatitis B. Chang Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih (Chinese Journal) 19: 53-55.
Zhou X, Gong Z, Su Y, Lin J, Tang K. 2009. Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61(3): 279-291.?
Zhu J, Liu C. 1992. "Modulating effects of extractum semen Persicae and cultivated Cordyceps hyphae on immuno-dysfunction of inpatients with posthepatitic cirrhosis." Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi, Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine 12(4): 207-9.?