Short Communication: A comparison of stand structure, species diversity and aboveground biomass between natural and planted mangroves in Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia




Abstract. Matatula J, Afandi AY, Wirabuana PYAP. 2021. Short Communication: A comparison of stand structure, species diversity and aboveground biomass between natural and planted mangroves in Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 1098-1103.  The effectiveness of mangroves reforestation can be evaluated by comparing the stand dynamics of planted mangroves with natural mangroves in similar site conditions. This study investigated stand structure, species diversity and aboveground biomass between natural and planted mangroves in Sikka, East Nusa Tenggara. A field survey was conducted using quadrat transect method for vegetation measurement, especially related to species composition and its size distribution. Several parameters were recorded in field observation, including number of species, diameter, height, volume, and aboveground biomass. The stand structure of both mangroves was demonstrated by the distribution of diameter class while the species diversity was described using three parameters, i.e., richness, heterogeneity, and evenness. Moreover, the IVI of each species recorded was also calculated to understand the contribution of species in the mangrove ecosystems. The comparison of stand characteristics between natural and planted mangroves was examined by Mann-Whitney test and Spearman Correlation was also applied to understand the relationship between IVI and aboveground biomass. The results showed that the diameter and height between the natural and planted mangroves significantly differed (P<0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in tree density, volume, and aboveground biomass (P<0.05). The stand structure of both mangrove stands followed the pattern of J-inverse in which the frequency of trees decreased with the increase in diameter class. Species diversity in both stands was statistically equal in richness, heterogeneity, and evenness (P>0.05) even though there were some specific species which only observed in the natural or planted mangroves. The most superior species in the planted mangroves was Rhizophora mucronata (IVI = 96.99) while the most important plant in the natural mangroves was Sonneratia alba (IVI = 82.49). Our study found there was a significant correlation between IVI and aboveground biomass in which species with higher IVI indicated greater aboveground biomass. Based on these findings, restoration efforts of degraded mangroves in Sikka have been effective. The restoration, which has been conducted for almost three decades, has not only brought back its vegetation cover but also the functional traits of the mangrove stand to mimic with natural mangroves in the area.


Angelini A, Portoghesi L, Corona, P. Chianucci, F. 2015. Structural attribus of stand overstory and light under the canopy. Ann. Silvic. Res. 39: 23–31.
Bauhus J, McElhinny CM, Alcorn, P. 2002. Stand structure and tree growth in uneven-aged spotted gum (Corymbia maculata) forests: Some implications for management. Forestry 75: 451–456.
Dasgupta S, Islam MS, Huq M, Khan ZH, Hasib MR. 2019. Quantifying the protective capacity of mangroves from storm surges in coastal Bangladesh. PLoS One 14: 1–14.
Debrot AO, Veldhuizen A, van den Burg SWK, Klapwijk CJ, Islam MN, Alam MI, Ahsan MN, Ahmed MU, Hasan SR, Fadilah R, Noor YR, Pribadi R, Rejeki S, Damastuti E, Koopmanschap E, Reinhard S, Scheltinga CT, Verburg C, Poelman M, 2020. Non-timber forest product livelihood-focused interventions in support of mangrove restoration: A call to action. Forests 11: 1–17.
Dinilhuda A, Akbar AA, Jumiati, Herawati H. 2020. Potentials of mangrove ecosystem as storage of carbon for global warming mitigation. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 21: 5353–5362.
Eddy S, Ridho MR, Iskandar I, Mulyana A. 2019. Species composition and structure of degraded mangrove vegetation in the Air Telang Protected Forest, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 20: 2119–2127.
Gebeyehu G, Soromessa T, Bekele T, Teketay D. 2019. Species composition, stand structure, and regeneration status of tree species in dry Afromontane forests of Awi Zone, northwestern Ethiopia. Ecosyst. Heal. Sustain. 5: 199–215.
Guèze M, Luz AC, Paneque-Gálvez J, Macía MJ, Orta-Martínez M, Pino J, Reyes-García V. 2014. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? a case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon. Econ. Bot. 68: 1–15.

Hossain M, Shaikh MAA, Saha C, Abdullah SMR, Saha S, Siddique MRH. 2016. Above-ground biomass, nutrients and carbon in Aegiceras corniculatum of the Sundarbans. Open J. For. 6: 72–81.
Kangkuso A, Jamili J, Septiana A, Raya R, Sahidin I, Rianse U, Rahim S, Alfirman A, Sharma S, Nadaoka K. 2016. Allometric models and aboveground biomass of Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. forest in Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forest Sci. Technol. 12: 43–50.
Kasim F, Kadim MK, Nursinar S, Karim Z, Lamalango A. 2019. Comparison of true mangrove stands in Dudepo and Ponelo islands, north Gorontalo district, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 20: 259–266.
Koh H, Teh S, Kh’ng X, Raja Barizan R. 2018. Mangrove Forests?: Protection Against. J. Trop. For. Sci. 30: 446–460.
Komiyama A, Havanond S, Srisawatt W, Mochida Y, Fujimoto K, Ohnishi T, Ishihara S, Miyagi T. 2000. Top/root biomass ratio of a secondary mangrove (Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob.) forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 139: 127–134.
Krisnawati H. 2012. Monograph allometric models for estimating tree biomass at various ecosystems types in Indonesia. Ministry of Forestry, Bogor.
Kusmana C, Sukristijiono S. 2016. Mangrove resource uses by local community in Indonesia. J. Nat. Resour. Environ. Manag. 6: 217–224.
Luo Z, Sun OJ, Xu H. 2010. A comparison of species composition and stand structure between planted and natural mangrove forests in Shenzhen Bay, South China. J. Plant Ecol. 3: 165–174.
Marois DE, Mitsch WJ. 2015. Coastal protection from tsunamis and cyclones provided by mangrove wetlands - A review. Int. J. Biodivers. Sci. Ecosyst. Serv. Manag. 11: 71–83.
Njana MA. 2017. Indirect methods of tree biomass estimation and their uncertainties. South. For. 79: 41–49.
Pamoengkas, P., Siregar, I.Z., Dwisutono, A.N., 2018. Stand structure and species composition of merbau in logged-over forest in Papua, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 19, 163–171.
Pukkala T, Lähde E, Laiho O, 2010. Optimizing the structure and management of uneven-sized stands of Finland. Forestry 83: 129–142.
Richards DR, Friess DA. 2016. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113: 344–349.
Sadono R, Soeprijadi D, Susanti A, Matatula J, Pujiono E, Idris F, Wirabuana PYAP. 2020a. Local indigenous strategy to rehabilitate and conserve mangrove ecosystem in the southeastern Gulf of Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 21: 1250–1257.
Sadono R, Soeprijadi D, Susanti A, Wirabuana PYAP, Matatula J. 2020b. Short communication: Species composition and growth performance of mangrove forest at the coast of tanah merah, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 21: 5800–5804.
Sghaier T, Cañellas I, Calama R, Sánchez-González M. 2016. Modelling diameter distribution of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia using normal and weibull distributions with parameters depending on stand variables. IForest 9: 702–709.
Sihombing VS, Gunawan H, Sawitri R. 2017. Diversity and community structure of fish, plankton and benthos in Karangsong mangrove conservation areas, Indramayu, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 18: 601–608.
Singh JK. 2020. Structural characteristics of mangrove forest in different coastal habitats of Gulf of Khambhat arid region of Gujarat, west coast of India. Heliyon 6: e04685.
Sinha A, Rämö J, Malo P, Kallio M, Tahvonen O. 2017. Optimal management of naturally regenerating uneven-aged forests. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 256: 886–900.
Susilo H. Takahashi Y. Yabe M. 2017. The opportunity cost of labor for valuing mangrove restoration in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Sustainability 9: 1–13.
Taillardat P. Friess DA, Lupascu M. 2018. Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale. Biol. Lett. 14: 1–7.
Turkis S, Elmas E. 2018. Tree species diversity and importance value of different forest communities in Yenice forests. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 27: 4440–4447.
Westphal C, Tremer N, Oheimb G, Hansen J, Gadow K, Härdtle W. 2006. Is the reverse J-shaped diameter distribution universally applicable in European virgin beech forests? For. Ecol. Manage. 223: 75–83.
Yuliana E, Hewindati YT, Winata AD, Djatmiko WA, Rahadiati ATI. 2019. Diversity and characteristics of mangrove vegetation in pulau rimau protection forest, Banyuasin District, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 20: 1215–1221.

Most read articles by the same author(s)