Phenotypic diversity and plasticity index of Eurycoma apiculata populations in Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia based on leaves morphology

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

ZULFAHMI
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6146-9919
EDI PURWANTO
PARJANTO
AHMAD YUNUS

Abstract

Abstract. Zulfahmi, Purwanto E, Parjanto, Yunus A. 2020. Phenotypic diversity and plasticity index of Eurycoma apiculata populations in Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia based on leaves morphology. Biodiversitas 21: 2923-2934. Eurycoma apiculata A.W. Benn. is a protected species in Indonesia, but diversity information of this species is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the phenotypic diversity, phenotypic plasticity index, and phenotypic differentiation among populations of E. apiculata in Eastern Sumatra, Indonesia based on leaves morphology. A total of 45 traits were measured on leaves from six populations studied. The result of this found that the phenotypic variation coefficient (CV) of the characters was ranged from 7.41% to 36.97%, revealed the abundant phenotypic variation in the species. The phenotypic CV values of the population varied from 13.95% to 24.10%. The CV values of all populations from the mainland Sumatra (17.75%) were lower than that from the Riau archipelago (23.61%), which revealed that phenotypic traits in mainland Sumatra were more stable compared to populations in the Riau archipelago. The population phenotypic plasticity index value of populations ranged from 0.41 to 0.51, and it was classified as a moderate level. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient among populations in this study was relatively low (VST = 21.06%), indicating a lower phenotypic variation among populations than within populations. The scatter plot of principal component analysis and UPGMA dendrogram divided the six populations studies into two groups. The findings of this study recommend that the in-situ conservation method is an effective protection strategy for E. apiculata while ex-situ conservation method can be implemented as a supplementary method.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

References
Alfaro RI, Fady B, Vendramin GG, Dawson IK, Fleming RA, Sáenz-Romero C, Lindig-Cisneros RA, Murdock T, Vinceti B, Navarro CM, Skrøppa T, Baldinelli G, El-Kassaby YA, Loo J. 2014. The role of forest genetic resources in responding to biotic and abiotic factors in the context of anthropogenic climate change. For Ecol Manag 333: 76-87.
Bijarpasi MM, Shahraji TR, Lahiji HS. 2019. Genetic variability and heritability of some morphological and physiological traits in Fagus orientalis Lipsky along an elevation gradient in Hyrcanian forest. Folia Oecologia 46: 45-53.
Batos B, Viloti? D, Orlovi? S, Miljkovi? D. 2010. Inter and intra-population variation of leaf stomatal traits of Quercus robur L. in Northern Serbia. Arch Biol Sci 62: 1125-1136.
Bruschi P, Grossoni P. & Bussotti F. 2003. Within-and among tree variation in leaf morphology of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. Natural populations. Trees 17: 164-172.
Brus R, Ballian D, Boguni? F, Bobinac M, IdžOjti? M. 2011. Leaflet morphometric variation of service tree (Sorbus domestica L.) in the Balkan Peninsula. Plant Biosystems 145: 278–285.
De-Lima VW, Boeger MRT, Cosmo NL, Coan AI. 2014. Leaf morphological plasticity of tree species from two developmental stages in araucaria forest. Braz Arch Biol Technol 57: 476-485.
Dkhar J, Pareek A. 2014. What determines a leaf's shape? EvoDevo 5.
Du L, Liu H, Yan M, Li J, Li J. 2017. Individual plasticity of the shade response of the invasive Solidago canadensis in China. PLoS ONE 12: e0170049.
Gao SB, Mo LD, Zhang LH, Zhang JL, Wu JB, Wang JL, Zhao NX, Gao YB. 2018. Phenotypic plasticity vs local adaptation in quantitative traits differences of Stipa grandis in semiarid steppe, China. Scientific Report 8: 3148.
Gentili R, Solari A, Diekmann A, Duprè C, Monti GS, Armiraglio S, Assini S, Citterio S. 2018. Genetic differentiation, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in fragmented populations of a rare forest herb. PeerJ 6: e4929.
Goba KAE, Kouonon LC, Koffi KG, Bony BS, Diomande I, Sie RS. 2019. Morphological diversity within Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae), an overexploited species in the savannahs of Cote d’Ivoire. Am J Plant Sci 10: 1675-1688.
Gonzalez-Rodriguez A, Oyama K. 2005. Leaf morphometric variation in Quercus affinis and Quercus laurina (Fagaceae), two hybridizing Mexican red oaks. Bot J Linn Soc 147: 427-435.
Han H, Li S, Gan X, Zhang X. 2017. Phenotypic diversity in natural population of an endangered plant Tetracentron sinense. Bot Sci 95: 283-294
Hounkpevi A, Azihou AF, Kouassi EK, Porembski S, Kakai RG. 2016. Climate-induced morphological variation of black plum (Vitex doniana Sw.) in Benin, West Africa. Genet Resour Crop Ev 63: 1073-1084.
Jarni K, Westergren M, Kraigher H, Brus R. 2011. Morphological variability of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in the north-western Balkans. Acta Soc Bot Pol 80: 245–252.
Kajba D, Ballian D, Idzojtic M, Poljak I. 2015. Leaf morphology variation of Populus nigra L. In natural populations along the rivers in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. South-East Eur For 6: 39-51.
Kreyling J, Puechmaille SJ, Malyshev AV, Valladares F. 2019. Phenotypic plasticity closely linked to climate at origin and resulting in increased mortality under warming and frost stress in a common grass. Ecol Evol 9: 1344-1352.
Li S, Yang S, Liu H, Guo N, Fu L, Ge H. 2014. Phenotypic diversity of Rosa beggeriana population in Tianshan Mountain of Xianjing. Acta Hort Sin 14: 1723-1730.
Li S, Li C, Jian H, Li S, Xiong J, Li J, Tang K. 2013. Studies on phenotypic diversity of vulnerable Rosa praelucens endemic to Shangrila, Yunan. Acta Hort Sin 40: 924-932.
Ligarreto GA, del-Pilar PM, Magnitskiy SV. 2011. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia. Rev Biol Trop 59: 569-583.
Martinez CC, Chitwood DH, Smith RS, Sinha NR. 2016. Left-right asymmetry in decussate and distichous phyllotactic systems. Phil Trans R Soc B 371: 20150412.
Medina-Villarreal A, Gonzalez-Astorga J. 2016. Morphometric and geographical variation in the Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn. (Zamiaceae) complex: evolutionary and taxonomic implications. Bot J Linn Soc 119: 213-233.
Nooteboom HP. 1962. Simaroubaceae. In: van Steenis CGGJ (eds) Flora Malaysiana. Wolter Noordhoff, Groningen-Netherlands.
Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ. 1999. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(1): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants I. Backhuys Publisher, Leiden-Netherlands.
Pichancourt JB, van Klinken RD. 2012 Phenotypic Plasticity Influences the Size, Shape and Dynamics of the Geographic Distribution of an Invasive Plant. PLoS ONE 7: e32323.
Poljak I, Kajba D, Ljubic I, Idzojtic M. 2015. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus domestica L in Croatia. Acta Soc Bot Pol 84: 249-259
Rohlf F. 1998. NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy. Stony Brook: Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York.
Romeo DP, Piera DM, Medagli P, Giuseppe M, Giuseppe SN, Robert WP, Paola F. 2016. Evidence From Multivariate Morphometric Study Of The Quercus Pubescens Complex In Southeast Italy. Bot Serb 40: 83-100.
Rosmaina R, Azhari R, Zulfahmi Z. 2015. Genetic diversity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker in forest reserve of kenegerian Rumbio, Indonesia. Malays Appl Biol 44: 73–80.
Rosmaina R, Zulfahmi Z. 2013. Genetic Diversity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker. JMHT 19: 138–144.
SAS. 2002. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 9.00. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
Sheng F, Chen SY, Tian J, Li P, Qin X, Wang L, Luo SP, Li J. 2017. Morphological and ISSR molecular markers reveal genetic diversity of wild hawthorns (Crataegus songorica K. Koch.) in Xinjiang. J Integr Agric 16: 60345-7
Stojnic S, Orlovic S, Miljkovic D, von Wuehlisch G. (2016). Intra and inter provenance variations in leaf morphometric traits in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Arch Biol Sci 68: 781–788.
Valladares F, Sanchez-Gomez D, Zavala MA. 2006. Quantitative estimation of phenotypic plasticity: bridging the gap between the evolutionary concept and its ecological applications. J Ecol 94: 1103-1116.
Viscosi V, Cardini A. 2011. Leaf morphology, taxonomy and geometric morphometrics: a simplified protocol for beginners. PLoS ONE 6: e25630.
Yang M, Shi SG, Liu W, Zhang M, Gou L, Kang YX, & Liu JJ. 2015. Phenotypic variation and diversity of Magnolia sprengeri Pamp in native habitat. Genet Mol Res 14: 6495-6508.
Yang S, Guo N, Ge H. 2016. Morphological and AFLP based genetic diversity in Rosa platyacantha population in population in Eastern Tianshan Mountain of Northwestern China. Horticultural Plant Science 2: 55-60
Zhang X, Song C, Zhang Y, Niu L, Zhang Q, Xie L. 2017. Phenotypic Diversity of Paeonia rockii population in Qinling and Ziwuling Mountains areas. Acta Hort Sin 44: 139-150.
Zhang QD, Jia RZ, Meng C, Ti CW, Wang YL. 2015. Diversity and population structure of a dominant deciduous tree based on morphological and genetic data. AoB Plants 7: plv103.
Zheng X, Meng C, Ji Z, Wang Y. 2013. Phenotypic Diversity of Leaves Morphologic Characteristics of Ulmus lamellosa natural populations in Shanxi. Acta Hort Sin 40: 1951-1960.
Zhou Y, Jia R, Yang S, Zhao X, Ge H, Luo W, Zhao X, Sang Y. 2016. Phenotypic diversity of Paphiopedilum armeniacum populations. Acta Hort Sin 43: 1337-1347.
Zulfahmi, Aryanti E, and Rosmaina. 2019. New Record of Eurycoma apiculata, A.W. Benn (Simaroubaceae) from forest reserve of Kenegerian Rumbio, Riau, Indonesia. Berita Biologi 18: 365-371.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>