Diversity of soil organic carbon and water characteristics under different vegetation types in northern Bengkulu, Indonesia




Abstract. Hermawan B, Suhartoyo H, Sulistyo B, Murcitro BG, Herman W. 2020. Diversity of soil organic carbon and water characteristics under different vegetation types in northern Bengkulu, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 1793-1799. Organic carbon and water characteristics are important soil properties that can easily degrade following the conversion of forest to cultivation land, but their levels of degradation depend on successive vegetation types after deforestation. The research aimed to evaluate the spatial diversity of soil organic carbon (SOC) and water characteristics on sites with annual and cash crops, as well as natural vegetation types. Forty-two undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths from plantation areas (rubber and oil palm), rice fields, shrub land, and grassland in Mukomuko, North Bengkulu, and Central Bengkulu Regencies of Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. Vegetation types were observed, and soil water characteristics were determined using a pressure plate apparatus unit from undisturbed soil samples, while SOC and particle-size distribution were analyzed from disturbed soil samples. The uppermost 10 cm soil layers were dominated by organic-C intervals of more than 3.0% while the 10-20 cm depths had intervals of less than 3.0%. Soils under oil palm and rice production had higher SOC of above 6.0% and water availability at the field capacity of 0.4-0.6 g g-1, particularly at 0-10 cm depths, while those under rubber and grass had a lower status of measured variables, particularly at 10-20 cm depth. There was a strong relationship (R2 = 0.63) between the soil organic carbon and water availability among study soils, suggesting the possibility to predict potential soil water deficits from organic matter status.


Adhikari, K., Dahal, K., Chen, Zueng-Sang, T., Yih-Chi, L., & Jihn-Sung. 2017. Rice-wheat cropping system: tillage, mulch, and nitrogen effects on soil carbon sequestration and crop productivity. Paddy and Water Environment 15(4): 699-710.
Ajidirman, A. 2006. A study on soil organic carbon restoration in relation to soil physical fertility under oil palm vegetation. Jurnal Agronomi 10(2). http://online-journal.unja.ac.id/index.php/agronomi/article/view/330/245
Barton, L. & Colmer, T.D. 2011. Granular wetting agents ameliorate water repellency in turfgrass of contrasting soil organic matter content. Plant and Soil 348(1/2): 411-424.
Borchard, N., Bulusu, M., Meyer, N., Rodionov, A., Herawati, H., Blagodatsky, S., Cadisch, G., Welp, G., Amelung, W., & Martius, C. 2019. Deep soil carbon storage in tree-dominated land use systems in tropical lowlands of Kalimantan. Geoderma 354. DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.07.022
BPS. 2016. Bengkulu Province in Figures. Statistics of Bengkulu Province.
Elberling, B., Jakobsen, B.H., Berg, P., Søndergaard, J., & Sigsgaard, C. 2004. Influence of vegetation, temperature, and water content on soil carbon distribution and mineralization in four High Arctic Soils. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 36(4): 528-538.
Endriani. 2011. A study on compaction, erodibility and aggregate stability of Andisol affected by landuse changes in upper Batang Merao Watershed. Jurnal Hidrolitan 2(1). http://online-journal.unja.ac.id/index.php/hidrolitan/article/view/459/375
Frazão, L.A, Paustian, K., Cerri C.E.P., & Cerri, C.C. 2013. Soil carbon stocks and changes after oil palm introduction in the Brazilian Amazon. GCB Bioenergy 5: 384–390. DOI: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2012.01196.x
Frazão, L.A, Paustian, K., Cerri C.E.P., & Cerri, C.C. 2014. Soil carbon stocks under oil palm plantations in Bahia State, Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 62. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.01.031
Hermawan, B., Suhartoyo, H., Anandyawati, S., Gonggo, B., & Agustian, I. 2019. Spatial variability in soil water under adjacent mature oil palm and rubber plantations: application of a new dielectric method in evaluating soil water. International Journal of Agricultural Technology 15(2): 261-272. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com
Karyati, S., Karmini, S., Simangunsong, G., & Tamba, J. 2018. The mixed cropping of Anthocephalus cadamba and Glycine max for rehabilitating sloping lands. BIODIVERSITAS 19(6): 2088-2095.
Mau, Y.S., Ndiwa, A.S.S., Markus, J.E.R., & Arsa, I.G.B.A. 2019. Agronomic performance and drought tolerance level of sweet potato hybrids grown in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. BIODIVERSITAS 20(8): 2187-2196.
Mey, D., Sartohadi, J., Mardiatno, D., & Marfai, M. A. 2015. Prediction of soil organic carbon loss due to erosion in Girindulu Watersheds. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 2(3). http://jdmlm.ub.ac.id/index.php/jdmlm/article/view/117
Mujiono, M., Harmantyo, D., Indra, T.L., Rukmana, I.P., & Nadia, Z. 2017. Simulation of land use change and effect on potential deforestation using Markov Chain - Cellular Automata. AIP Conference Proceedings 1862, 030177. DOI: 10.1063/1.4991281
Pransiska, Y., Triadiati, T., Tjitrosoedirjo, S., Hertel, D., & Kotowska, M.M. 2016. Forest conversion impacts on the fine and coarse root system, and soil organic matter in tropical lowlands of Sumatera (Indonesia). Forest Ecology and Management 379: 288-298.
Ramos, H.M.N., Vasconcelos, S.S., Kato, O.R., & Castellani, D.C. 2018. Above- and belowground carbon stocks of two organic, agroforestry-based oil palm production systems in eastern Amazonia. Agroforestry Systems 92(2): 221-237. DOI:10.1007/s10457-017-0131-4
Rusdiana, O. & Lubis, R.S. 2012. Pendugaan korelasi antara karakteristik tanah terhadap cadangan karbon (carbon stock) pada hutan sekunder. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika 3(1). http://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jsilvik/article/view/5390.
Saha, R. & Mishra, V.K. 2009. Effect of Organic Residue Management on Soil Hydro-Physical Characteristics and Rice Yield in Eastern Himalayan Region, India. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 33(2): 161-176.
Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. 1980. Statistical Methods. 7th Edition. The Iowa State University Press.
Supriyono. 2018. Critical land detection Watershed River Bengkulu and effect of coastal area using Geographic Information System. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education 2(1): 30-37.